General Film Glossary
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General Film Glossary

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A

A & B CUTTING: A method of assembling original material in two separate rolls, allowing optical effects to be made by double printing (A and B Printing).

A OR B WIND: When a roll of 16 mm film, perforated along one edge, is held so that the outside end of the film leaves the roll at the top and toward the right, winding "A" should have the perforations on the edge of the film toward the observer, and winding "B" should have the perforations on the edge away from the observer. In both cases, the emulsion surface should face inward on the roll.

A TAKES: Good takes. Also known as circle takes simply because they are noted by circling the take numbers on the actual script pages.

A WIND: When you hold a roll of 16 mm or other single-perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward the right, the perforations will be along the edge toward the observer.

ABRASION MARKS: Scratches on film caused by dirt, improper handling, grit, emulsion pile-ups, and certain types of film damage (e.g., tom perforations).

ACADEMY APERTURE: In projection, the aperture cutout, designed as specified by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences that provides for a screen-image aspect ratio of approximately 1.37:1; also called "sound aperture."

ACADEMY LEADER: A non-projected identification and timing count-down film leader designed to specifications of the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences, and placed at the head end of a print reel. The countdown cueing information is related to "feet" which, in the silent days, meant projection at 16 frames per second, or 1 foot per second.

ACTION: The movement of the subject within the camera field of view. The command given by a director.

ADDITIVE LAMPHOUSE: A printer lamphouse consisting of three light sources, one for each color record.

ADDITIVE PRINTER: Prints from color originals or intermediates; uses red, green, and blue lights that are controlled separately to produce the correct composite-color printing light for each shot in the film.

ADDITIVE PRINTING: The use or three separate colored sources red, green, blue are combined to form the light source that exposes the film. Modem additive printers separate white light from a tungsten-halogen bulb into its red, green and blue components by using a set of diachronic mirrors.

ADVANCE: The separation between a point on the sound track of a film and the corresponding picture image.

ANALOG: An electrical signal that is continuously variable.

ANALYTICAL DENSITY: Measurement of the amount of yellow, cyan, and magenta dye in an image.

ANAMORPHIC IMAGE: An image that has been squeezed in one direction, usually horizontally, by an anamorphic lens.

ANAMORPHIC LENS: A lens that produces a "squeezed" image on film in the camera. When the film is projected on a screen, an appropriate lens reverses the effect, and the image spreads out to lifelike proportions. Designed for wide-screen movie photography and projection.

ANAMORPHIC RELEASE PRINT: A print in which the images are compressed horizontally.

ANGEL HAIR: Fine hair-like skiving, or slivers, caused when the film edge rubs against a sharp edge or burr in the projector. Also produced when excessive film/gate misalignment is present.

ANGLE: With reference to the subject, the direction from which a picture is taken. The camera-subject relationship in terms of the immediate surroundings

ANIMATION: The making of inanimate objects to appear mobile. This can be done by exposing one or two frames of movie film and then moving the objects slightly and exposing one or two more frames, etc. When the movie is projected, the objects will appear to have moved by themselves.

ANIMATION CAMERA: A motion picture camera with special capability for animation work, which usually includes frame and footage counters, the ability to expose a single frame at a time, reverse-filming capability, and parallax-free viewing.

ANIMATOR: An artist who uses the techniques of frame-by-frame film making to give his artwork the illusion of movement.

ANSWER PRINT: The first print (combining picture and sound, if a sound picture), in release form, offered by the laboratory to the producer for acceptance. It is usually studied carefully to determine whether changes are required prior to printing the balance of the order.

APERTURE: (1)Lens: The orifice, usually an adjustable iris, which limits the amount of light passing through a lens. (2) Camera: In motion picture cameras, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame exposed. (3) Projector: In motion picture projectors, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame projected.

APERTURE PLATE: A metal plate containing the aperture that is inserted into a projector or camera.

APPLE BOXES: Wooden boxes in three basic sizes (full, half, and quarter) used on the set in a variety of ways--to raise actors, furniture, lights, etc.

ASA: Exposure Index or speed rating that denotes the film sensitivity, defined by the American National Standards Institution. Actually defined only for black-and-white films, but also used in the trade for color films.

ASPECT RATIO: Proportion of picture width to height such as 1.37: 1 or 1.85:1, or 2.35:1.

ASSEMBLY: The first stage of editing, when all the shots are arranged in script order.

AVERAGE GRADIENT: A measure of contrast of a photographic image , representing the slope of a portion of a characteristic curve. The term which refers to a numerical means for indicating the contrast or the photographic image.




B   [top of page]

B WIND: When you hold a roll of 16 mm or other single perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward the right; the perforations will be along the edge away from the observer.

BABY: Focusable studio lamp with a Fresnel lens and a 500-watt to 1000-watt bulb.

BABY LEGS: Baby Tripod. Very short tripod used when shooting low camera angles.

BACKDROP: Painted or photographed background used behind the set windows and doors.

BACKGROUND: A flat piece of artwork that serves as the setting for the animated action, and which may vary from a realistically rendered scene to a sheet of colored paper. Abbreviated as BG or BKG.

BACKGROUND LIGHT: The light or lights used to illuminate the background.

BALANCE STRIPE: A magnetic stripe on the opposite edge of the film from the magnetic track. Although the purpose of the stripe is to keep the film level on the reel, some projectors also use it for recording.

BAR SHEET: A printed form, used by directors and animators in planning the movement of art and camera, on which all the elements of a film-music, voices, sound effects, visuals-are charted frame-by-frame in their relationship to time.

BARN DOOR: A frame with adjustable flaps, attached to the studio light to control unwanted spill light or the spread of the light beam.

BARNEY: A lightweight padded covering that generally performs the same function as a blimp. Heated barneys are sometimes used to facilitate shooting under extremely cold outdoor conditions.

BASE: The transparent, flexible support, commonly cellulose acetate, on which photographic emulsions are coated to make photographic film.

BCU: (Big Close-up). A single feature such as eyes, mouth, hand, etc., filling the screen. Also known as XCU (extreme close-up).

BEAT: The musical tempo (of the sound track) used for timing motion picture action.

BELLY BOARD: A board for mounting a camera as low as possible.

BLACK: The absence of all visible light. Also the absence of any distinguishable colors.

BLACK-AND-WHITE FILM: A film which produces a monochromatic picture in shades of gray. Usually a metallic silver image.

BLACKBODY RADIATOR: A light source which has a continuous smooth spectral distribution.

BLACK LIGHT: Ultraviolet light.

BLIMP: A soundproof enclosure that completely covers the camera to prevent camera-operating noise from being recorded on the sound track.

BLINK: Density changes in the projected image; caused by studio light fluctuation, printer or sensitometric problems, or radiation fog.

BLOCKING THE SCENE: Establishing the positions and movements of actors and/or camera in the scene.

BLOW UP: -(part of frame)- In transferring an image by means of an optical printer, it is possible to enlarge a properly proportioned fraction of the original image to full frame size in the copy, or to enlarge an original 16 mm image to 35 mm size.

BLOW-UP PRINTING: Optical printing resulting in a picture image size other than that of the original film.

BLUE-SCREEN: The filming or videotaping of actors, props or objects in front of a blue-screen (or green-screen). In post-production, the blue or green is replaced by another element, such as background, using digital or optical special effects techniques.

BOOM: A long, adjustable arm used to position a microphone during production.

BOTTOM LIGHTING: When the source of illumination for photographing a scene comes from beneath the artwork, rather than above it; used for a variety of reasons, such as the creation of glowing letters or stars, or to photograph several layers of drawings at once for a pencil test. Also known as Under Lighting.

BOUNCE LIGHT: Light that is reflected off ceilings and walls to illuminate the subject indirectly.

BREAKDOWN: The separation of a roll of camera original negative into its individual scenes.

BREAKDOWN TABLE: A film handling unit that is one component of platter system. It is used to unload (break down) the large film roll from the platter onto the individual shipping reels prior to shipment. The unit is also used in loading the platter (makeup). See MAKEUP TABLE.

BROAD LIGHT: Soft, floodlighttype of illumination unit; usually not focusable.

BURN-IN: The photographic double exposure of a title or other subject matter over previously exposed film.

BUTT SPLICE: Film splice in which the ends come together without overlapping; ends are held together by splicing tape.

BUZZ TRACK: A sound test film with a specially made sound track that is used for determining the proper lateral positioning of the scanning beam slit in relation to film travel.




C   [top of page]

CAMERA AXIS: Any imaginary line running exactly through the optical center of the camera lens.

CAMERA LOG: A record sheet giving details of the scenes photographed on a roil of original negative.

CAMERA OPERATOR: The person responsible for translating the instructions on the exposure sheet into camera moves and photographing the artwork.

CAMERA ORIGINAL: Film exposed in a camera.

CAMERASCOPE: A wide-screen presentation process compatible with CinemaScope-type presentations.

CC FILTERS: Color-compensating hiters. A series of filters in yellow, cyan, magenta, blue, green, and red, growing in density by small steps. Used for precise color correction at the printing stage, but sometimes also when filming, especially in scientific cinematography.

CEMENT SPLICE: Film splice made by using a liquid solvent cement to weld the overlapping ends together.

CEMENT SPLICER: Device used to make cement splices. Some cement splicers can also be used to make overlapping tape splices.

CENTURY STAND: A metal stand for positioning a lighting accessory such as a flag, cookie, scrim, etc.

CGI: Computer Generated Imagery.

CHECK: The step in production in which all elements of a scene are examined and checked against the exposure sheet to ensure they are correct before being filmed. In studio animation, the person responsible for this step is the Checker.

CHECKER-BOARD CUTTING: A method of assembling alternate scenes of negative in A and B rolls allowing prints to be made without visible splices.

CHROMAKEY: A method of electronically matting or inserting an image from one camera into the picture produced by another. Also called "keying", the system uses a solid color background behind the subject to be inserted and signal processing through a special effects generator.

CHROMINANCE: The color portion of a video signal.

CINEMASCOPE: Trade name of a system of anamorphic wide-screen presentation. The first commercially successful anamorphic system for the presentation of wide-screen pictures combined with stereophonic sound. The 35 mm negative camera image is compressed horizontally by 50 percent using a special anamorphic camera lens. Upon projection, the 35 mm print image is expanded horizontally by the same amount using a similar anamorphic projection lens. Depending on the type of sound used in the print, the screen image has an aspect ratio of 2:35:1 (optical sound), or 2:55:1 (4-track magnetic sound).

CINEMIRACLE: A wide-screen presentation, as in Cinerama, that used three separate 35 mm film strips projected on a large, deeply curved screen. One of the main differences, however, was the consolidation of the three projectors in a single booth away from the audience. This was accomplished by the use of mirrors on the two outer projectors to maintain picture orientation.

CINEPANORAMIC: A wide-screen process compatible with CinemaScope- type presentations.

CLAPPER BOARD: Also called "clapstick" or "clapper." Two short boards hinged together and painted in a matching design. When sharply closed, they provide an audible and visible clue which is recorded on film and sound tape simultaneously. This helps to synchronize the picture film with the magnetic film in the editing process. A slate with relevant information, like scene and take number, is usually attached to a clapper board. Modern cameras are often equipped with an electronic slate. See slate, electronic.

CLAW: Mechanism used in most camera and projectors to move the film intermittently.

CLOSE-UP: A detail photographed from such a distance that only a small portion of the subject fills a frame of film.

COATED LENS: A lens covered with a very thin layer of transparent material that reduces the amount of light reflected by the surface or the lens. A coated lens usually transmits more light than an uncoated lens at the same f-stop because of less flare.

COLLIMATED: A beam of light is said to be collimated when all of its rays have been made parallel.

COLOR ANALYZER: A device for determining the correct printing light ratios for printing color negatives.

COLOR BALANCE: The perceptual appearance of a color image of film as a function of the ration of exposures of each of these primary color records on the film.

COLOR CORRECTION: The altering of the color balance by modifying the ratio of the printing light values.

COLOR DUPLICATE (DUPE) NEGATIVE: Duplicate with a negative color image; made from a negative color original. Typically used for making release prints.

COLOR FILM: Color film carries one or more emulsions which after processing.

COLOR INTERNEGATIVE: Negative-image color duplicate made from a positive color original. Typically used for making release prints.

COLOR NEGATIVE: A negative (opposite) record of the original scene. Colors are the complementaries of the colors in the scene; light areas are dark, and dark areas are light.

COLOR POSITIVE: A positive record of the original scene.

COLOR PRINT FILM: Film designed for making positive prints from color originals and color duplicates.

COLOR REVERSAL FILM: Film that after processing has a color positive image. Can be an original camera film or a film in which other positive films are printed.

COLOR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE: Color duplicate negative made by the reversal process directly from an original color negative.

COLOR SATURATION: A term used to describe the brilliance or purity of a color. When colors present in a film image are projected at the proper screen brightness and without interference from stray light, the colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are said to be saturated.

COLOR SENSITIVITY: Portion of the spectrum to which a film is sensitive. The ability of the eye or photographic stock to respond to various wave- lengths of light.

COLOR SEPARATION NEGATIVE: Black-and-white negative made from red, green, or blue light from an original subject or from positive color film.

COLOR TEMPERATURE: The color quality expressed in degrees Kelvin (K) - of the light source. The higher the color temperature, the bluer the light; the lower the temperature, the redder the light.

COLOR TEST: Footage of a film that has been timed and which is used as a check to make sure that colors, characters, and backgrounds do not clash in the finished film. See timing.

COMBINED NEGATIVE: Negative film containing the picture and the sound track.

COMPLEMENTARY COLOR: Color that is minus one of the primary colors. Cyan is minus red-cyan and red are complementary colors; yellow is minus blue-yellow and blue are complementary colors; magenta is minus green-magenta and green are complementary colors. Produces white when mixed in equal parts with the primary color to which it is complementary.

COMPONENT VIDEO: A system of signal recording and processing that maintains the original video elements separately rather than combined (encoded) into a single, composite signal.

COMPOSITE PRINT: A print of a film that contains both picture and sound track. Films regularly shown in theaters are composite prints. Also called Release Print.

COMPOSITE VIDEO: A video signal in which the luminance and chrominance elements have been combined, as is NTSC, PAL and SECAM.

COMPOSITING: The process of combining two or more separate images into a single, new image.

COMPOSITION: The distribution, balance, and general relationship of masses and degrees of light and shade, line, and color within a picture area.

CONFORM: Match the original film to the final edited work print.

CONTACT PRINT: Print made by exposing the receiving material in contact with the original. Images are the same size as the original images, but have a reversed left-to-right orientation.

CONTACT PRINTER: Printer in which the two pieces of film are in contact, usually emulsion-to-emulsion, during exposure.

CONTINUITY: The smooth flow of action or events from one shot or sequence to the next.

CONTINUOUS CONTACT PRINTER: A printing machine where the emulsion of the negative film is in direct physical contact with the positive raw stock emulsion, and the two films are moving continuously across the printing aperture.

CONTINUOUS MOTION PROJECTOR: A projector in which the film moves through the projector gate in nonintermittent motion.

CONTRAST: (1) The general term for describing the tone separation in a print in relation to a given difference in the light-and-shade of the negative or subject from which it was made. Thus, "contrast" is the general term for the property called "gamma" (Y), which is measured by making an H & D Curve for the process under study. (2) The range of tones in a photographic negative or positive expressed as the ratio of the extreme opacities or transparencies or as the difference between the extreme densities. This range is more properly described as "scale" or "latitude." (3) The ability of a photographic material, developer, or process as a whole to differentiate among small graduations in the tones of the subject.

CONTROL STRIP: A short length of film containing a series of densities to check on laboratory procedures.

COOKIE (kukaloris): A thin panel with regular or irregular shapes cut out, permitting light directed through it to form a pattern on a background.

CORE (Film): A plastic cylinder on which film is wound, shipped and stored.

CORRECTION FILTER: A medium enabling a color change.

CRAB DOLLY: A camera-mounting device with wheels that can be steered in any direction. Usually fitted with an adjustable-height column.

CRADLE: A lens support for heavy lenses, used to improve steadiness and protect the lens mount from damage.

CRANE: A large camera-mounting vehicle with a rotating and high-rising arm, operated electrically or manually.

CREASES: A crease is defined as a distinct sharp fold-line or crack in a piece of film.

CREDITS: Titles of acknowledgement for the production.

CRI: Color Reversal Intermediate, a duplicate color negative prepared by reversal processing.

CROPPING: To change, delete, or otherwise alter the size of an image being projected or viewed as a print. In theatrical projection it is usually the result of "home made" aperture plates, improper screen masking, wrong focal length lenses, etc. CROSS ABRASIONS: Short scratches across the film width that occur when sections of the roll shift from side-to-side during shipment.

CS (Close Shot): Head and torso down to the waist line filling the frame.

CU (Close-up): Head and shoulders filling the frame.

CUT: (1) The instantaneous change from one scene to another. Successive frames contain the last frame of one scene and the first frame of the following scene. (2) To stop operation of camera, action, and/or sound recording equipment. (3) To sever or splice film in the editing process.

CUTTING: The selection and assembly of the various scenes or sequences of a reel of film.

CYAN: Blue-green; the complement of red or the minus-red subtractive used in three-color processes.




D   [top of page]

DAILIES: Also called "rushes." Picture and sound work prints of a day's shooting; usually an untimed one-light print, made without regard to color balance. Delivered from the lab daily during the shooting period, for viewing by the director, cameramen, etc. so that the action can be checked and the best takes selected; usually shown before the next day's shooting begins.

DATASHEET: A publication giving technical details of a specific film product.

DAYLIGHT: Light consisting of a natural combination of sunlight and sky- light (approximately 6500 degrees K).

DECIBEL (dB): Unit of loudness measured on a logarithmic scale. The human ear can perceive 1 dB changes in loudness in the aural range.

DEFINITION: The clarity or distinctness with which detail of an image is rendered; fidelity of reproduction of sound or image.

DENSITY: Light-stopping characteristics of a film or a filter. The negative logarithm to the base ten of the transmittance (or reflectance) of the sample. A sample which transmits 2 of the incident light has a transmittance of 0.50, or 50 percent and a density of 0.30.

DEPTH OF FIELD: The range of object distances within which objects are in satisfactory sharp focus in a photograph.

DEPTH OF FOCUS: The range through which a photographic film or plate can be moved forward and backward with respect to the lens while retaining satisfactory sharp focus on an object at a given distance.

DEVELOPER: A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films

DEVELOPMENT: Process of making a visible film image from the latent image produced during exposure.

DIAGONAL SCRATCHES: Slanted cross scratches on the film usually caused by the film riding over the edge of a roller flange. More common in platter transport systems.

DIALOGUE: The portion of the sound track that is recorded by the voice artists and spoken by the characters on the screen.

DIALOG REPLACEMENT: Technique of recording dialog under the acoustically perfect conditions of the dubbing studio, to replace the poor dialog of scenes already shot on location. Actors time the delivery of their lines so as to match their lip movement as viewed on the screen.

DIAPHRAGM: An adjustable opening mounted behind or between the elements or a lens used to control the amount of light that reaches the film. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers.

DICHROIC FILTER: A filter used on tungsten lamps to convert their color temperature td that of daylight. The filter reflects excessive red and transmits light that is bluer than originally.

DIFFERENTIAL FOCUS: Also called "split focus." Focusing at a point between two subjects in depth, to accommodate them both in the depth-of-field range, i.e., both in sharp focus.

DIFFRACTION: Tile spreading of light as it passes the edges of opaque objects or through narrow slits. Light also is diffracted when passing through a lens. The effects of this distortion on images is greater as the aperture becomes smaller.

DIFFUSION: The spreading of light rays from a rough reflecting surface or by transmission of light through a translucent material.

DIGITAL: A system whereby a continuously variable (analog) signal is broken down and encoded into discrete binary bits that represent a mathematical model of the original signal.

DIGITAL EFFECTS: Special effects, such as picture compression, rotation, reversal, etc., performed with a digital effects system.

DIGITAL RECORDING: Sound-recording process in which sound waves are recorded as digital bits. During playback, a digital-to-analog conversion occurs that changes the digital bits back into sound waves. Digital recording produces high-quality true sound that does not contain any system noise.

DIGITAL VIDEOTAPE: A format which stores an image on tape as a binary code, allowing it to be moved through various digital devices with minimal loss of quality.

DIGITAL STORAGE DEVICE: A device using magnetic or optical disks to store and retrieve digital images and/ or information.

DIMENSION 150: A special 70 mm system developed in 1963 that consisted of special optics used in printers and projectors. The manufactured prints could be shown on deeply curved screens such as those used in Cinerama.

DIMMER: An electrical device, normally in the form of variable resistance or load, that reduces electrical energy to a lamp, usually by reducing voltage.

DIRECTOR: The person who interprets the written book or script. He over- sees all aspects of the production.

DISK STORAGE DEVICE: A device using magnetic or optical disks to store and retrieve digital images and/or information.

DISSOLVE: An optical or camera effect in which one scene gradually fades out at the same time that a second scene fades in. There is an apparent double exposure during the center portion of a dissolve sequence where the two scenes overlap.

DISTRIBUTOR: Firm that sells, leases, and rents films.

DOLLY: (1) A truck built to any camera and camera operator to facilitate movement of the camera during the shooting of scenes. (2) To move the camera toward or away from the subject while shooting a scene.

DOUBLE (MULTIPLE) EXPOSURE: The photographic recording of two (or more) images on a single strip of film. The images may be either superimposed or side by side in any relationship, sometimes individually vignetted.

DOUBLE-FRAME: Identical views photographed twice (two frames) instead of once. This technique cuts in half either the speed of a movement or the number of drawings required for a complete action, some times called "on twos."

DOUBLE SYSTEM RECORDING: Synchronous sound recording on a recorder that is separate from the camera. Recorders are typically magnetic with sync-pulse capability.

DOUBLE SYSTEM SOUND: Recording of sound on tape and picture on film; synchronization occurs during editing.

DROP FRAME: A type of SMPTE time code designed to match clock time exactly. Two frames of code are dropped every minute, on the minute, except every tenth minute, to correct for the fact that color frames occur at a rate of 29.97 per second, rather than an exact 30 frame per second.

DUBBING: The combination of several sound components into a single recording.

DUPE, DUPE NEGATIVE: A duplicate negative, made from a master positive by printing and development or from an original negative by printing followed by reversal development.

DUSTING: The formation and accumulation of fine particles in the projector gate area. Can be caused by material scraped from the film due to misalignment of film in the gate, excessive tension, lack of proper lubrication, etc. See Angel hair.

DYE: In photography, the result of color processing in which the silver grains or incorporated color couplers have been converted into the appropriate dye to form part of the color image.




E   [top of page]

EDGE GUIDE: A fixed edge or shoulder against which the film is physically pressed to ensure steadiness in the lateral direction.

EDGE NUMBERS: (Key Numbers / Footage Numbers) Sequential numbers printed along the edge of a strip of film by the manufacturer to designate identification.

EDIT: To arrange the various shots, scenes, and sequences, or the elements of the sound track, in the order desired to create the finished film.

EDIT SYNC (LEVEL SYNC) (EVEN SYNC): The relation between the picture and sound records during editing, when they are in alignment and not offset as for projection.

EDITING: The process of selecting the shots and sequences that will be included in the final film, their length, and the order in which they will appear.

EDITOR: The individual who decides what scenes and takes are to be used, how, where, in what sequence, and at what length they will appear.

EDL (EDIT DECISION LIST): List of edits prepared during off-line editing.

EI/ASA SPEED: Film sensitivity to light as rated in numbers established by the American Standard Association (now American National Standards Institute, Inc.).

EMULSION SIDE: The side of a film coated with emulsion.

EMULSION SPEED: The photosensitivity of a film, usually expressed as an index number based on the film manufacturer's recommendations for the use of the film under typical conditions of exposure and development.

ENCODER: A circuit that combines the primary red, green and blue signals into a composite video signal.

ESTABLISHING SHOT: A shot usually close to the beginning of a scene defining the place, time, and other important elements of the action.

EXCHANGE: A depository and inspection/distribution center for theatrical release prints. Exchanges are located in approximately 35 regional areas within the United States roughly dependent on theater and population density.

EXISTING LIGHT: Available light, Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light represents the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon sighs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight.

EXPOSURE: Amount of light that acts on a photographic material; product of illumination intensity (controlled by the lens opening) and duration (controlled by the shutter opening and the frame rate).

EXPOSURE INDEX (EI): Number assigned to a film that expresses its relative sensitivity to light. The EI is based on the film emulsion speed, a standard exposure technique, and specific processing solutions.

EXPOSURE LATITUDE: Degree to which film can be underexposed or overexposed and still yield satisfactory results.

EXPOSURE METER, INCIDENT: A meter calibrated to read and integrate all the light aimed at and falling on a subject within a large area. (Scale may be calibrated in foot-candles or in photographic exposure settings.)

EXPOSURE METER, REFLECTANCE: A meter calibrated to read the amount of light, within a more restricted area, reflecting from the surface of a subject or an overall scene. (Scale may be calibrated in foot-candles or in photographic exposure settings.)

EXPOSURE SETTING: The lens opening selected to expose the film.

EXPOSURE SHEET: The frame-by-frame Instructions for the camera operator that accompany the artwork when it is sent to be photographed.




F   [top of page]

F-NUMBER: A symbol that expresses the relative aperture of a lens. For example, a lens having a relative aperture of 1.7 would be marked f/1.7. The smaller the f-number, the more light the lens transmits.

FADE: Exposure of motion picture film either in the camera or during sub- sequent operations, so that, for a fade-in, starting with no exposure and extending for a predetermined number of frames, each successive frame receives a systematically greater exposure that the frame preceding it, until full normal exposure for the scene has been attained. From this frame on, successive frames receive identical exposure for the remainder of the take.

FALL-OFF: The gradual reduction in luminance from the screen center to the edges and comers.

FEATHERED LIGHT: A light moved off axis so that only the weaker edge of the light pattern strikes the subject. A natural shading or fall-off results.

FIELD OF VIEW: The portion of the scene in front of the camera represented within the limits of the camera aperture at the focal plane. Area of field thus varies with focal length of lens and camera-to-subject distance.

FIELD (VIDEO): One-half of a complete picture (or frame), containing all the odd or even scanning lines of the pictured, In television, one of two complete sequences of raster lines forming an image.

FILL LIGHT: Light used to fill in shadows.

FILM (motion picture film): A thin, flexible, transparent ribbon with perforations along one or both edges; it bears either a succession of images or a sensitive layer capable of producing photographic images.

FILM BASE: Flexible, usually transparent, support on which photographic emulsions are coated.

FILM CAN: Metal container designed to hold rolls, spools, or reels of motion-picture films.

FILM CEMENT: A special combination of solvents and solids used to make overlap splices on motion picture film by its solvent action and subsequent welding of the film at the junction.

FILM GATE: Components that make up the pressure and aperture plates in a camera, printer, or projector.

FILM GAUGE: Width of the standard sizes of motion picture films.

FILM IDENTIFICATION CODE: Letter which identifies film type.

FILM NUMBER: An identification code number given to every film product.

FILM-TO-TAPE TRANSFER: The process of transferring an image captured on film to videotape.

FILM PERFORATION: Holes punched at regular intervals for the length of film, intended to be engaged by pins, pegs, and sprockets as the film is transported through the camera, projector, or other equipment.

FILTER: A piece of glass, gelatin or other transparent material used over the lens or light source to emphasize, eliminate or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain elements in the scene.

FILTER LAYER: In a photographic film, a thin, uniform, colored layer that is coated above or below the emulsion to serve as a light filter; it controls the spectral quality of the light reaching the emulsion.

FINAL CUT: Last editing of a workprint before conforming is done or before sound workprints are mixed.

FINE GRAIN: Emulsion in which silver particles are very small.

FIRST PRINT: The first trial composite (married) print containing both picture and sound for the purpose of checking picture and sound quality.

FISHPOLE: A long, lightweight handheld rod on which a microphone can be mounted in situations where the boom is not practical.

FLAG: Shadow-casting device made of plywood or cloth stretched on a metal frame. Specific types of flag include the cutter, finger, gobo, and target.

FLANGE: The rim on a roller used for guiding the film. Also, a large disc used on a rewind to take up film on a core. A pair of flanges (discs) that screw together is called a split reel.

FLASHING: Technique for lowering contrast by giving a slight uniform exposure to film before processing.

FLAT: An image is said to be "flat" if its contrast is too low. Flatness is a defect that does not necessarily affect the entire density scale of a reproduction to the same degree. Thus, a picture may be "flat" in the high light areas, or "flat" in the shadow regions. or both.

FLUTTER: In sound, rapid period variation of frequency caused by unsteadiness of the film or tape drive.

FOCAL LENGTH: The distance from the optical center of a lens to the point at which parallel rays of light passing through it converge (the focal point).

FOCAL PLANE: The area in space on which parallel rays of light refracted through a lens focus to form sharp images.

FOCUS: To adjust a lens so that it produces the sharpest visual image on a screen, on a camera film plane, etc.

FOG: Darkening or discoloring of a negative or print, or lightening or discoloring of a reversal material. Causes include accidental exposure to light or X-rays, overdevelopment, using outdated film, and storing film in a hot, humid place.

FOLEY: Background sounds added during audio sweetening to heighten realism, e.g., footsteps, bird calls, heavy breathing, short gasps, etc.

FOLLOW FOCUS: To change the focus setting of a lens as a scene is being photographed to keep a moving subject in sharp focus.

FOOTAGE: A method of measuring film length and therefore, screen time. As 90 feet of 35 mm film equal one minute of screen time, 35 mm footage is used in many studios as a measure of an animator's weekly output. Animators also refer to the length of scenes in feet, rather than in seconds or minutes-a 30-foot scene, rather than a 20-second one.

FOOTAGE NUMBERS: Also called edge numbers. Sequential numbers which are pre-exposed or printed in ink at regular intervals on the edge of the film outside or in between the perforations.

FOOTLAMBERT: US luminance measurement unit (l footlambert = 3.425 candelas per square meter).

FORCE-PROCESS: Develop film for longer than the normal time to compensate for underexposure.

FOREGROUND: The part of the scene in front of the camera, represented within the limits of the camera aperture, occupied by the object(s) nearest to the camera.

FORMAT: The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame.

FPM: Feet Per Minute. expressing the speed of film moving through a mechanism.

FPS: Frames Per Second. indicating the number or images exposed per sec end.

FRAME: The individual picture image on a strip of motion picture film.

FRAME-BY-FRAME: Filming in which each frame is exposed separately, as the object being photographed must be altered before each exposure in order to create the illusion of movement in the finished film. as opposed to the more usual method of filming in which the film runs place before it.through the camera at a steady, prescribed rate to record action taking

FRAME COUNTER: An indicator which shows the exact number of frames exposed.

FRAME LINE: The separation between adjacent image frames on motion picture film.

FRAME LINE MARKING: A mark placed on the edge of the film between every fourth perforation as an aid to splicing in frame when no image or frame line is visible. On 70 mm film, a small punched hole placed between every fifth perforation.

FRAME (VIDEO): A complete television Picture made up of two fields, produced at the rate of approximately 29.97 Hz (color), or 30Hz (black& white).

FREEZE FRAME: An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated so as to appear stationary when projected.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE: Ability of the photographic sound track to reproduce the full spectral range of sounds.

FRONT END: General terms for all production and preparation work up to the Answer Print stage before Release Printing.

FULL-COAT: Magnetic film that is entirely covered on one side with the recording medium.

FX: Abbreviation for "effects," such as sound effects or special effects.




G   [top of page]

GAFFER: The chief electrician on the film crew.

GAFFER'S TAPE: Wide and strong adhesive tape used for securing the lighting instruments, stands, cables, etc., on the set.

GATE: The aperture assembly at which the film is exposed in a camera, printer or projector.

GATE TENSION: The resistance to film movement produced by adjustable spring-loaded rails in the projector gate.

GATOR GRIP: An alligator-type grip used to attach lightweight lamps to sets, furniture, pipes, etc., mainly on location. A stronger variety is called a gaffer grip.

GAUGE: Refers to the format of the film stock, i.e., super 8, 16 mm, or 35mm.

GEARED HEAD: A type of tripod head in which the pan and tilt movements are operated by crank handles through a gear system. These gears can be regulated.

GELATIN FILTER (GEL): A light filter consisting of a gelatin sheet in which light-absorbing pigment or dye is incorporated.

GENEVA MOVEMENT: A mechanical device that produces intermittent film movement in the projector. The principle behind the movement involves a rotating cam and pin that intermittently engages in a four- slotted star wheel, also known as a Geneva cross or Maltese cross. During the pin/slot engagement, the star wheel shaft containing the intermittent sprocket rotates 90", or one frame. At normal projection speed, this intermittent rotation occurs 24 times per second.

GOBO: Panel of opaque material on a footed stand with an adjustable arm. Used to confine the area a light illuminates, or to keep light from shining directly into the camera lens. A flag is sometimes called a "gobo," particularly when it is used to protect the lens from direct light.

GRAININESS: The character of a photographic image when, under normal viewing conditions, it appears to be made up of distinguishable particles, or grains. This is due to the grouping together, or "clumping" of the individual silver grains, which are by themselves far too small to be perceived under normal viewing conditions.

GRANULARITY: Nonuniformity in a photographic image that can be measured with a densitometer.

GRAY CARD: A commercially prepared card that reflects Is percent of the light hitting it. Visually it appears neutral, or a middle gray halfway between black and white.

GRIP: A member of a film crew responsible for laying camera tracks, setting flags, etc.

GROOVED TOOTH: A tooth on the intermittent sprocket that has a groove worn at the base on the pull-down side as a result of wear. It normally appears on all the teeth. The sprocket should be replaced although film damage does not always occur immediately.

GROSS FOG: The density of the base of the film plus the density of the fog in the emulsion. Also known as D-min and base + fog.

GUILLOTINE SPLICER: Device used for butt-splicing film with splicing tape.




H   [top of page]

HALATION: A defect of photographic films and plates. Light forming an image on the film is scattered by passing through the emulsion or by reflection at the emulsion or base surfaces. This scattered light causes a local fog which is especially noticeable around image of light sources or sharply defined highlight areas.

HALIDE: Compound with a halogen, such as chlorine, bromine, iodine.

HARD: (1) As applied to a photographic emulsion or developer, having a high contrast. (2) As applied to the lighting of a set, specular or harsh, giving sharp dense shadows and glaring highlight.

HARD LIGHT: Light made up of directional rays of light that creates strong, hard, well-defined shadows; sometimes called specular light.

HAZE FILTER: These filter provide varying degrees of blue-light and green-light absorption.

HEAD, CAMERA: Also called "tripod head." A device for mounting the camera on a tripod or other supports. It allows for vertical and horizontal camera movements, called tilting and panning respectively.

HEAD END, HEADS: The beginning of a reel where the film image is upside down when the film is threaded into a projector for showing.

HEAD- RECORDING: On a tape recorder, printer or projector an electromagnet across which the tape or film is drawn and which magnetizes the coating on the tape base during recording.

HEAT FILTER: An optical device that absorbs or reflects the nonvisible heat energy radiating from the are lamp source before it reaches the film plane of the projector.

HEATER BARNEY: Padded camera cover with electric heating elements; used for cold-weather filming.

HIGH-HAT: Low camera support of fixed height.

HIGH-SPEED CAMERA: A camera designed to expose film at rates faster than 24 frames per second. Used to obtain slow-motion effects.

HIGHLIGHTS: Visually the brightest, or photometrically the most luminant, areas of a subject. In the negative image, the areas of greatest density; in the positive image, the areas of least density.

HMI LIGHTS: Metal halide lamps are fundamentally mercury arcs with metal halide additives to adjust the color balance. Usually rated at approximately 5400 K. For daylight-balanced films.

HOT: Referring to too much light in an area, or to an excessively bright highlight.

HUE: Sensation of the color itself; measured by the dominant wavelength.




I   [top of page]

ILLUMINANT: Light source used to project the film image or to expose the film.

IMAGE, LATENT IMAGE: The invisible image formed in a camera or printer by the action of light on a photographic emulsion.

IMAGE ORIENTATION: Laboratory function that assures that the projected image is properly formed on the screen, and that the sound track is on the appropriate side of the film.

IMAGE SPREAD: Exposure slightly beyond the edges of the images formed by light striking the film.

INFRARED: Nonvisible, long wavelength radiation from a carbon or xenon are that contributes to the heating of the film and equipment.

INTEGRAL DENSITY: Measurement of how incident light is affected by the integral absorption of the color image rather than by the individual dye.

INTENSITY, LIGHT: A term referring to the power (strength) of a light source. The total visible radiation produced by the light source.

INTERMEDIATE: Film used only for making duplicates from which other duplicates or prints are made. Does not include camera films.

INTERMITTENT: Not continuous but equally spaced (sometimes random) motion, as the intermittent (24 fps) motion of film through a projector.

INTERNEGATIVE (DUPE NEGATIVE): Color negative made from a color negative. For making release prints.

INTERPOSITIVE: A color master positive print.

IN THE CAN: Describes a scene or program which has been completed. Also, "That's a wrap".

INFRARED: Nonvisible radiation from the long wavelength portion of the spectrum.

INSERT EDIT: An electronic edit in which the existing control track is not replaced during the editing process, The new segment is inserted into program material already recorded on the video tape.

INTERMITTENT MOVEMENT: The mechanism or a camera, printer or projector by which each frame is held stationary when exposed and then advanced to the next.

IFS: Inches Per Second.




J   [top of page]

JAM-SYNC: Process of synchronizing a secondary time code generator with a preselected master time code, i.e., synchronizing the smart slate and the audio time code to the same clock.




K   [top of page]

K: Degrees Kalvin, the unit of the color temperature scale.

KEYKODE NUMBER: Kodak's machine-readable key numbers, Includes I0-digit key number, manufacture identification code, film code and offset in perforations.

KEY POSE: The characteristic or main pose in a movement.

KINESCOPE: A film of a video tape made by shooting the picture on a specially designed television monitor. Also referred to as Kine.

KINETOSCOPE: An early filmstrip device developed and devised by Thomas Edison and W. K. L. Dickson.




L   [top of page]

LABORATORY: A facility that specializes in processing and printing film, sometimes offering additional services such as editing and film storage.

LABORATORY FILM: Film products, not intended for original photography, but necessary to complete the production process.

LATENT IMAGE: Invisible image in exposed, undeveloped film; results from exposure to light.

LATENT IMAGE EDGE NUMBERING: Images placed on the edge of film products in manufacturing that become visible after development.

LATITUDE: In a photographic process, the range of exposure over which substantially correct reproduction is obtained. When the process is represented by an H & D curve, the latitude is the projection on the exposure axis of that part of the curve which approximates a straight line within the tolerance permitted for the purpose at hand.

LAYBACK: Transferring the finished audio track back to the master video tape.

LAYOUT: A detailed drawing of a shot in which background elements, staging of the action, and camera moves are carefully worked out and plotted; the stage of production in which these are determined.

LEADER: Any film or strip of material used for threading a motion picture machine. Leader may consist of short lengths of blank film attached to the ends of a print to protect the print from damage during the threading of a projector, or it may be a long length of any kind of film which is used to establish the film path in a processing machine before the use of the machine for processing film.

LENS: An optical device designed to produce an image on a screen, on a camera film, and in a variety of optical instruments. Also used to converge, diverge or otherwise control light rays in applications not involving images.

LIGHT: The main illumination of the subject.

LIGHT AXIS: An imaginary line running exactly through the center of intensity of a light.

LIGHT BALANCING FILTER: Makes minor color balance adjustments to the light reaching the film.

LIGHT FILTER: A light-absorbing transparent sheet, commonly consisting of colored glass or dyed gelatin that is placed in an optical system to control the spectral quality, color, or intensity of the light passing a given plane.

LIGHT INTENSITY: Degree of light, per unit, falling on subject; usually expressed in foot-candles.

LIGHT METER: An electrical exposure meter for measuring light intensity. LIGHT METERS: See EXPOSURE METERS. LIGHT OUTPUT: The maximum power or energy delivered by a given light: concentrated by a spotlight, or spread out by a floodlight.

LIGHT PIPING: Fog caused by light striking the edge of film and traveling along the base to expose the emulsion inside the magazine or roll.

LIGHTING - BROAD LIGHTING: The key light illuminates fully the side of the face turned toward the camera.

LIGHTING - SHORT LIGHTING: The key light illuminates fully the "short" side of the face that is turned away from the camera.

LIGHTING RATIO: The ratio of the intensity of key and fill lights to fill light alone.

LIGHT VALVE: Device for controlling intensity and color quality of light on additive prints.

LIP SYNC: Simultaneous precise recording of image and sound so that the sound appears to be accurately superimposed on the image, especially if a person is speaking toward the camera.

LIVE-ACTION: The filming or videotaping of staged or documentary scenes of people, props and locations.

LONG SHOT (LS): The photographing of a scene or action from a distance or a wide angle of view so that a large area of the setting appears on a frame of film, and the scene or objects appear quite small.

LONGITUDINAL SCRATCHES: Scratches running along the length of film.

LOOP (continuous film): A section of film spliced end-to-end for use in printing, testing, dubbing, etc.

LOOP (projector or camera): The path in which the film is formed to allow the film to travel intermittently through the gate.

LOW KEY: A scene is reproduced in a low key if the tone range of the reproduction is largely in the high density portion of the H & D scale of the process.

LTC (LONGITUDINAL TIME CODE): Time code recorded on one of the audio channels of video tape. Requires tape movement to read. (See also VITC)

LUMEN: The measure of luminous flux (the rate at which light pulses are emitted or received). For instance, one candela of light covering a square foot of surface. See FOOTLAMBERT.

LUMINANCE: The measured value of brightness; reflected light measure on motion picture screens as footlamberts or candelas per square meter.

LUX: Metric measure of illumination approximately equal to 10 foot-candles (1 lux = 10.764 fc).




M   [top of page]

MACHINE SPEED: The rate at which film moves through the processor, expressed in feet or meters per minute.

MAGAZINE (projector): Enclosures on a motion-picture projector which holds the reels of film.

MAGAZINE TAKE-UP (United Kingdom uses the term spool box): The device which winds up the film after photography (in a camera), copying (in a printer), and after projection (in projection).

MAGENTA: Purplish color; complementary to green or the minus-green subtractive primary used in the three-color process. Magenta light results when red and blue light overlap.

MAGNETIC DISK: A storage format for digital information used in computers and other new technologies, and read by a magnetic disk drive.

MAGNETIC SOUND: Sound derived from an electronic audio signal recorded on a magnetic oxide stripe or on full-coated magnetic tape.

MAGNETIC SOUND HEAD: The magnetic sound reproducer installed above the projector head but below the supply reel support arm or magazine.

MAGNETIC STRIPING: The application of magnetic material on motion- picture film intended for the recording of sound. 152

MAGNETIC TAPE / MAGNETIC FILM: Usually 1/4-inch plastic audio tape that has been coated with particles that can be magnetized. As used on tape recorders. In film use, it is also used in various formats compatible with super 8, 16mm, 35mm and 70 mm films.

MAGNETIC TRACK: Linear path of magnetically recorded audio signal on a magnetic film stripe or tape. The number of "mag tracks" can vary from one to six, depending on the picture format.

MAGOPTICAL PRINT: Composite release print that contains both optical and magnetic sound tracks.

MANUFACTURER IDENTIFICATION CODE: Letter which identifies film manufacture.

MASKING: Restricting the size of a projected image on a screen by the use of black borders around the screen. Also the restriction in size of any projected image or photographic print by the use of undercut aperture plates or masks and borders.

MASTER POSITIVE: Timed print made from a negative original and from which a duplicate negative is made.

MASTER: The final negative-reversal positive or intermediate film from which subsequent prints are made.

MASTER SHOT: Usually a long shot in which all action in a scene takes place. Action is repeated for the MS and CU which may be cut into the scene.

MATCH FRAME EDIT: An edit in which the source and record tapes pick up exactly where they left off. Often used to extend a previous edit. Also called a 'tacking edit".

MATCHING CHECK SYMBOLS: Two (35mm) or four (16mm) randomly selected and placed symbols designed as an extra matching check. To use: after matching key number and checking picture, verify that same symbols are located in same position on both the workprint and the negative.

MATTE: An opaque outline which limits the exposed area of a picture, either as a cut-out object in front of the camera or as a silhouette on another strip of film.

MAXIMUM DENSITY (D-MAX): Portion of the shoulder of the characteristic curve where further increases in exposure on negative film or decreases in exposure on reversal film will produce no increase in density.

MEDIUM SHOT: A scene that is photographed from a medium distance so that the full figure of the subject fills an entire frame.

METRE-CANDLE: Unit of illuminance. The light received at a point one metre away from a point light source having an intensity of one candela (formerly candle).

MGM CAMERA 65: A motion picture production method developed at the MGM Studios using a 65 mm negative with an image height of five perforations and a horizontal compression ratio of 1.33:1. A 65 mm or 70 mm contact print could be shown on an appropriate 70 mm projector equipped with a 1.33:1 anamorphic lens. Using special reduction printing techniques, 35 mm prints could be made for CinemaScope-type presentations.

MINIMUM DENSITY (D-MIN): Constant-density area in the tone of the characteristic curve where less exposure on negative film or more exposure on reversal film will produce no reduction in density. Sometimes called base plus fog in black-and-white film.

MIX: To combine the various sound tracks-dialogue, music, sound effects - into a single track.

MIXING: The combining of several sound sources into one.

MODELING: In computer graphics, the process of plotting the locations of the points that make up the dimensions of an object in three dimensional space.

MODULATION TRANSFER CURVE: Indicates the ability of a film to record fine detail. The curve results when light transmission is measured with lines that are successively more closely spaced.

MOVIOLA: A trademarked name for a machine with a small rear-projection screen and the capacity to play back several sound tracks. Used in editing and for reviewing portions of the film during production. Also used to synchronize or interlock picture and sound track in editing.

MS: (Medium Shot). Frame composition in which a three-quarter-length figure fills the screen.




N   [top of page]

NARRATION: The off-screen commentary for a film; often referred to as "voice-over."

NEGATIVE: The term "negative" is used to designate any of the following (in either black-and white or color): (1)The raw stock specifically designed for negative images. (2) the negative image. (3) Negative raw stock that has been exposed but has not been processed. (4) Processed film bearing a negative image.

NEGATIVE FILM: Produces a negative image (black is white, white is black, and colors appear as complementaries).

NEGATIVE IMAGE: A photographic image in which the values of light and shade of the original photographed subject are represented in inverse order. Note: In a negative image, light objects of the original subject are represented by high densities and dark objects are represented by low densities. In a color negative, colors are represented by their complementary color.

NEGATIVE-POSITIVE PROCESS: Photographic process in which a positive image is obtained by development of a latent image made by printing a negative.

NEGATIVE TIMING (Negative Grading): The selection of the appropriate printing lights for the printing process.

NEUTRAL-DENSITY FILTERS: Used to reduce the intensity of light read the film without affecting colors.

NEUTRAL TEST CARD: A commercially prepared card: One side has a neutral 18-percent reflection that has the appearance of medium gray.The other side has a neutral reflection of 90-percent and has the visual appearance of stark white.

NG: "No good." notation for picture and sound takes that will not be used in the final edited film.

NOISE: Unwanted sound in an audio pickup.

NOISE REDUCTION: Process of reducing inherent audio system noises by the use of special electronic circuitry. See DOLBY.

NON-DROP FRAME: A type of SMPTE time code that continuously counts a full 30 frames per second. As a result, non-drop, frame-time code does not match real time. (See also Drop Frame)

NONSYNC SOUND: In theatrical projection, the amplifier channel selector position used when playing record or tape music during openings, intermissions, and closing.

NTSC (NATIONAL TELEVISION STANDARDS COMMITTEE: Committee that established the color transmission system used in the U.S. and some other countries. Also used to indicate the system itself consisting of 525 lines of information, scanned at a rate of approximately 30 frames per second. <




O   [top of page]

OFF-LINE EDITING: The process of creatively assembling the elements of a production, to communicate the appropriate message or story, and/or calculating the order, timing and pace with user-friendly equipment such as film, 3/4" videotape or non-linear computer editing systems.

ONE-TO-ONE PRINTING: Optical printing of the images which are reproduced to the same size.

ON-LINE EDITING: Final editing or assemble using the original master tapes to produce a finished program ready for distribution. Usually preceded by off-line editing. Usually associated with high-quality computer editing

OPAQUE: Of sufficient density so that all incident of light is completely absorbed (the opposite of transparent).

OPTICAL EFFECTS: Trick shots prepared by the use of an optical printer in the laboratory, especially fades, dissolves, superimpositions, freeze-frames, split screens, and wipes.

OPTICAL PRINTER: Used when image size of the print film is different from the image size of the pre-print film. Also used when effects such as skip frames, blowups, zooms, and mattes are included.

OPTICAL SOUND: System in which the photographic (optical) sound track on a film is scanned by a horizontal slit beam of light that modulates a photoelectric cell. The voltages generated by the cell produce audio signals that are amplified to operate screen speakers.

OPTICAL TRACK: Sound track in which the sound record takes the form of density variations (variable density track) or width variations (variable area track) in a photographic image.

OPTIMUM PRINT DENSITY: The desired screen quality.

ORIGINAL: An initial photographic image, or sound recording-whether photographic or magnetic-as opposed to some stage of duplication thereof.

ORIGINAL NEGATIVE: The negative originally exposed in a camera.

OUT-TAKE: A take of a scene which is not used for printing or final assembly in editing.

OVEREXPOSURE: A condition in which too much light reaches the film, producing a dense negative or a washed-out reversal.

OVERLAP SPLICE: Any film splice in which one film end overlaps the over film end.




P   [top of page]

PAL (PHASE ALTERNATION BY LINE): Color television system developed in Germany, and used by many European and other countries. PAL consists of 625 lines scanned at a rate of 25 frames per second.

PAN: A camera move in which the camera appears to move horizontally or vertically, usually to follow the action or scan a scene. In animation, the effect is achieved by moving the artwork under the camera.

PAN SHOT: Derived from "panoramic." A shot which encompasses a wider area than can be viewed by the camera at one time, and which will be scanned by the camera by means of panning.

PANAVISION 35: A 35 mm process using 35 mm negative film and photographed through a Panavision anamorphic lens with a compression of 2X. Contact 35 mm prints are compatible with anamorphic systems such as CinemaScope.

PARALLAX: In camera work, the viewfinder often is mounted with its optical axis at an appreciable distance from the optical axis of the cam- era lens, commonly resulting in inadvertent positional errors in framing.

PEAK DENSITY: Wavelength of maximum absorption.

PERFORATION DAMAGE: On inspection the perforations through a magnifying glass you will find damage progressing from cracked, chipped or elongated holes to torn holes.

PERFORATIONS: Regularly spaced and accurately shaped holed which are punched throughout the length of a motion picture film. These holes engage the teeth of various sprockets and pins by which the film is advanced and positioned as it travels through cameras, processing machines, and projectors.

PERSISTENCE OF VISION: The ability of the eye to perceive a series of rapid still images as a single moving image by retaining each impression on the retina for a fraction of a second, thus overlapping the images. This phenomena makes it possible to see the sequential projected images of a motion picture as life-like continuous movement

PHOTOFLOOD: Type of light bulb in which voltage overcharges the filament, boosting the light output and color temperature, but shortening the life of the bulb itself.

PHOTOMETER: An electro-optical device used to measure light intensity (a light meter).

PIN: A component of a camera of printer mechanism that engages with a perforation to secure the film at the time of exposure, or to advance the film for the next exposure.

PIN REGISTRATION: A film term relating to the steadiness of the image. For optical and film-to tape transfers, a pin-registered device holds each frame in position for a perfectly registered image, critical for creating multilayered special effects.

PITCH: (1) That property of sound which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. (2) Distance from the center of one perforation on a film to the next; or from one thread of a screw to the next; or from one curve of a spiral to the next.

PIXEL('PICTURE ELEMENT'): The digital representation of the smallest area of a television picture, appearing as a tiny dot on the television screen. In a full color image, each pixel contains three components - a combination of red, green and blue signals - reflecting the trichromatic nature of human vision. The number of pixels in a complete picture differs from one system to another; the more pixels, the greater the resolution.

PIXILATION: A stop motion technique in which full-sized props and live actors are photographed frame-by-frame to achieve unusual effects of motion.

POLARIZING FILTER: Transparent material used to subdue reflections and control brightness of the sky.

POSITIVE FILM: Motion picture film designed and used primarily for the making of master positives or release prints.

POSITIVE IMAGE: A photographic replica in which the values of light and shade of the original photographed subject are represented in their natural order. The light objects of the original subject are represented by low densities and the dark objects are represented by high densities.

POST-PRODUCTION: The work done on a film once photography has been completed, such as editing, developing and printing, looping, etc.

POSTSYNCHRONIZATION: The recording of the sound track after the picture has been completed.

PRESYNCHRONIZATION: The recording of the sound track before any production has begun, so that action can be synchronized when the film is exposed with the prerecorded sound.

PRIMARY COLOR: One of the light colors-blue, red, or green-that can be mixed to form almost any color.

PRINTING: Copying motion picture images by exposure to light energy.

PROCESSING: Procedure during which exposed film is developed, fixed, and washed to produce either a negative or a positive image.

PROCESS SCREEN PHOTOGRAPHY: The filming or videotaping of actors, props, or objects in front of a blue-screen (or green-screen). In post-production, the blue or green is replaced by another element, such as a background, using digital or optical special effects techniques.

PROCESSING TIME: The amount of time it takes for a computer to process data.

PRODUCER: The administrative head of the film, usually responsible for budget, staff, legal contracts, distribution, scheduling, etc.

PRODUCTION: The general term used to describe the process involved in making all the original material that is the basis for the finished motion picture. Loosely, the completed film.

PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR: An assistant to the producer, in charge of routine administrative duties.

PROJECTION: The process of presenting a film by optical means and transmitted light for either visual or aural review, or both.

PROJECTION SPEED: The rate at which the film moves through the projector; twenty-four frames per second is the standard for all sound films.

PROTECTIVE LEADER: A section of unexposed film attached to the beginning and/or end of a reel of film.

PROTECTIVE MASTER: A master positive from which a dupe negative can be made if the original is damaged.

PULL-DOWN CLAW: The metallic finger which advances the film one frame between exposure cycles.

PUSH PROCESSING: A means of increasing the exposure index of film.




Q   [top of page]

No Listing


R   [top of page]

RAW STOCK: Unexposed and unprocessed motion picture film; includes camera original, laboratory intermediate, duplicating, and release-print stocks.

REAL TIME: The instantaneous response of a computer or device to instructions: the normal viewing time of any film or videotape program.

RECIPROCITY LAW: Expressed by (H)=Et, where E is the light intensity, and T is time. When E or T are varied to the extreme, an unsatisfactory exposure can result.

REDUCTION PRINT: Print made from a larger-gauge film.

REDUCTION PRINTING: Making a copy of a film original on smaller format raw stock by optical printing; for example, printing a 35 mm original onto 16 mm stock for use in libraries, etc.

REFLECTANCE: The brightness reflected from a surface such as a motion picture screen. See LUMINANCE.

REFLECTOR: Any surface that reflects light. Reflectors can be constructed of cardboard, metal, cloth, or other material. In motion picture projection, primarily the lamphouse mirror and the screen. See MIRROR.

RELEASE NEGATIVE: Duplicate negative or color reversal intermediate from which release prints are made.

RELEASE PRINT: In a motion picture processing laboratory, any of numerous duplicate prints of a subject made for general theater distribution.

RENDERING: The simulation of light on three-dimensional objects; determining an object's surface characteristics, such as color and texture.

RESOLUTION: The capacity of a medium to capture and playback distinctly fine details. Film is a high resolution storage medium; current video tape formats are low resolution mediums. Computers can perform at a wide range of resolutions, from the lowest to the highest, depending on hardware and software capabilities, and are therefore considered resolution independent.

REVERSAL FILM: Film that processes to a positive image after exposure in a camera, or in a printer to produce another positive film.

REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE: First-generation duplicate that is reversed to produce the same kind of image (negative or positive) as the original; used for printing.

REVERSAL PROCESS: Any photographic process in which an image is produced by secondary development of the silver halides grains that remain after the latent image has been changed to silver by primary development and destroyed by a chemical bleach. In the case of film exposed in a camera, the first developer changes the latent image to a negative silver image. This is destroyed by a bleach and the remaining silver halides is converted to a positive image by a second developer. The bleached silver and any traces of halides may now be removed with hypo.

REVERSE ANAMORPHIC: An optical device which, when placed in front of a prime lens, reduces the size of the projected anamorphic image rather than magnifies it, as with a normal anamorphic attachment. This feature allows the use of short focal length prime lenses with larger apertures resulting in added screen luminance of up to 40 percent. See Anamorphic lens.

REWIND: An automatic console or set of bench mounted spindles used to wind film from reel-to-reel.

REWINDING: The process of winding the film from the take-up reel to the supply reel so that the head end, or start of the reel, is on the outside. If there are no identifying leaders on the film, upside-down images will signify the head end.

RGB: Red green & blue, the primary color components of the additive color system used in color television.

ROTATION:A camera move in which the camera is moved in a complete circle to give a spinning effect in the film. A partial rotation is called a Tilt.

ROUGH CUT: Preliminary stage in film editing, in which shots, scenes, and sequences are laid out in an approximate relationship, without detailed attention to the individual cutting points.




S   [top of page]

SAFELIGHT: A darkroom light fitted with a filter to absorb light rays to which film is sensitive.

SAFETY BASE: Film base that is fire-resistant or slow-burning as defined by ANSI PH1.25 and PH22.31, and by various fire codes. Acetate-base film and polyester-base film meet safety-film standards.

SAFETY FILM: A photographic film whose base is fire resistant or slow burning as defined by ANSI document PH 1.25, PH22.21, and by various fire codes. At the present time, the terms "safety base film," "acetate base film" and "polyester base film" are synonymous with "safety film."

SAMPLING: The process of determining the best color combinations that represent an original image or desired effect.

SATURATION: Term used to describe color brilliance or purity. When color film images are projected at the proper brightness and without interference from stray light, colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are said to be "saturated."

SCENE: A segment of a film that depicts a single situation or incident.

SCOOP: A studio lamp of a soft, wide, round pattern; 500 to 2,000 watts.

"SCOPE": A diminutive term used to describe any anamorphic projection system or film.

SCRATCHES: non-photographic blemishes on the film emulsion or base.

SCRIM: A translucent material that makes hard light appear more diffuse, or reduces, like a screen, the intensity of the light without changing the character of it.

SCRIPT: The text of a film, giving dialogue, action, staging, camera moves,

SENIOR: (5K), Focusable studio lamp with a Fresnel lens and 5,000-watt bulb.

SENSITIVITY: Degree of responsiveness of a film to light.

SEPARATION LIGHT: A light that helps define the outline of a subject, thereby separating it from the background. Also called edge light, top Light, rim light, backlight, hair light, skimmer, or kicker.

SEQUENCE: A group of related scenes in a film that combine to tell a particular portion of the story, and which are usually set in the same location or time span.

SET: Derived from "setting." The prepared stage on which the action for three-dimensional animation takes place. A set may be as simple as a plain tabletop, or as elaborate as props and decoration can make it.

SHARPNESS: Visual sensation of the abruptness of an edge. Clarity.

SHORT: The term usually refers to the cartoons made in the Hollywood studies during the 1930's, 1940's, and 1950's, which ran between 6 and 7 minutes long. Today, shorts range from one and one-half to over 20 minutes in length and cover a variety of styles and subjects.

SHOT: An unbroken filmed segment; the basic component of a scene.

SHUTTER: In theatrical projection, a two-bladed rotating device used to interrupt the light source while the film is being pulled down into the projector gate. Once blade masks the pulldown while the other blade causes an additional light interruption increasing the flicker frequency to 48 cycles per second ... a level that is not objectionable to the viewer at the recommended screen brightness of 16 footlamberts (55 candelas per square meter).

SINGLE-FRAME EXPOSURE: The exposure of one frame of motion picture film at a time, in the manner of still photography. Commonly used in animation and time-lapse.

SINGLE-PERFORATION FILM: Film with perforations along one edge only.

SINGLE-SYSTEM SOUND: Sound on a magnetic or optical track that was recorded on the same strip of film on which the action was recorded.

16 MM FILM: Film 16 mm wide. May have single or double perforations.

SLATE BOARD: A board with written information such as production title and number, scene and take number, and director's and cameraman's names, photographed at the beginning or end of each take as identification. See also clapper board and slate, electronic.

SLATE, ELECTRONIC: An electrical device synchronously exposing a few frames in the camera and providing an electric signal that is recorded on the magnetic tape, so that the two can later be matched in editing.

SLOW IN/SLOW OUT: Refers to the fact that panning and trucking moves usually begin slowly, gradually attain their full speed, then slow to a stop, to avoid a sense of jerkiness in the movement.

SLOW MOTION: The process of photographing a subject at a faster frame rate than used in projection, to expand the time element.

SMPTE: Acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.

SOFT: The opposite of "hard". (1) As applied to a photographic emulsion or developer, having a low contrast. (2) As applied to the lighting of a set, diffuse, giving a flat scene in which the brightness difference between highlights and shadows is small.

SOFT LIGHT: Light made up of soft, scattered rays resulting in soft, less clearly defined shadows; also called diffuse light.

SOUND DRUM: A flat roller in the sound head designed to keep the film precisely positioned at the point where the scanning beam slit scans the sound track. Also called the scanning drum.

SOUND EFFECTS (FOLEY): Sound from a source other than the tracks bearing synchronized dialogue, narration or music: sound effects commonly introduced into a master track in the re-recording step, usually with the idea of enhancing the illusion of reality.

SOUND GATE: The gate used in an optical sound head, instead of a sound drum, to keep the film sound track precisely aligned on the scanning beam slit during sound reproduction.

SOUND HEAD: The optical sound reproducer mounted beneath the projector head, but above the take-up reel support arm or magazine.

SOUND NEGATIVE: The negative record of photographic sound recording.

SOUND POSITIVE: A positive print of the photographic sound recording.

SOUND READER: A device used for playback of sound tracks, particularly during the editing procedure.

SOUND RECORDER: Device that may use audio tape, magnetic film, or motion-picture film to record sound.

SOUND SPEED: Standardized speed of filming and projecting at 24 frames per second, when picture is synchronized with a sound track. Applies to films of all gauges.

SOUND SPROCKET: Any sprocket that pulls the film past the sound scanning beam slit.

SOUND STRIP: Narrow band of magnetic recording medium on a strip of film.

SOUND TRACK: Photographic/optical sound track running lengthwise on 35 mm film adjacent to the edges of the picture frames and inside the perforations.

SPECIAL EFFECT: A term broadly applied to any of numerous results obtained in the laboratory by combination and manipulation of one or more camera records to produce an imaginatively creative scene different from what was in front of the main camera. The making of special effects may involve techniques such as double printing, fades, mattes, vignetting, etc.

SPECULAR: A term used to describe mirror-like quality of a reflection or reflected light from a surface. Specular also can describe a hard or point-surface light such as the sun, are light, or any other light producing nearly parallel beams and hard shadows.

SPECULAR DENSITY: Comparing only the transmitted light that is perpendicular to the film plane with the normal incident light, analogous to optical printing and projection.

SPEED: 1. Inherent sensitivity of an emulsion to light. Represented by a number derived from a films characteristic curve. 2.The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which a lens can be set. A "fast" lens transmits more light and has a larger opening and better optics than a "slow" lens.

SPLICE: Any type of cement or mechanical fastening by which two separate lengths of film are united end-to-end so they function as a single piece of film when passing through a camera, film processing machine, or projector.

SPLICER: A mechanical device arranged for holding film in alignment and with the correct sprocket hole interval during the various operations required in joining two pieces of film. It often includes a device for removing emulsion.

SPLICING: The joining together of two or more pieces of film so that the joined film segments will pass through a projector, film processor, or camera without interruption.

SPLICING TAPE: Tape designed to make overlap or butt splices without the need for film cement or mechanical fastener. Available in a variety of sizes, with or without perforations, and can be clear, translucent, or opaque orange.

SPROCKET: A toothed wheel used to transport perforated motion picture film.

STABILIZATION: The influence of a magnetic flux in steadying the flow of electrons in a carbon are. The action of a damping roller or other device in reducing wow and flutter in a soundhead.

STAGING: The planning of how the action will take place.

STAND: The entire photographing unit, including the compound, camera, and crane.

STOCK: General term for motion picture film, particularly before exposure.

STOP: The relationship between the focal length of a lens and the effective diameter of its aperture. An adjustable iris diaphragm permits any ordinary photographic lens to be used at any stop within its range. Sometimes used synonymously with f-number as in "f-stop". A unit of exposure change.

STOP DOWN: To decrease the diameter of the light-admitting orifice of a lens by adjustment of an iris diaphragm.

STOP FRAME (HOLD FRAME): An optical printing effect in which a single-frame image is repeated to appear stationary when projected. Also, camera exposure made one frame at a time rather than by continuous running.

STOP MOTION: An animation method whereby apparent motion of objects is obtained on the film by exposing single frames and moving the object to simulate continuous motion.

STORYBOARD: A series of small consecutive drawings with accompanying caption-like descriptions of the action and sound, which are arranged comic strip fashion and used to plan a film. The drawings are frequently tacked to corkboards so that individual drawings can be added or changed in the course of development. Invented at the Disney studio, the technique is now widely used for live action films and commercials, as well as animation.

STRAY LIGHT: Any light that does not contribute to the purpose for which it was intended. In theatrical projection, all of the nonimage-producing light hitting the screen.

STRIPE, MAGNETIC: Narrow band(s) of magnetic oxide usually coated toward the edges of the base side of motion picture film for accepting audio signal recordings in the form of magnetic impulses.

SUBTRACTIVE COLOR: The formation of colors by the removal of selected portions of the white light spectrum by transparent filters or dye images.

SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS: Photographic process that uses one or more subtractive primary-cyan, magenta, and yellow-to control red, green, and blue light.

SUNLIGHT: Light reaching the observer directly from the sun. To be distinguished from Daylight and Skylight which include indirect light from clouds and refract the atmosphere.

SUPER PANAVISION: Similar to Panavision 35, but photographed flat in 65 mm. The 70 mm prints produce and aspect ratio of 2.25:1 with 4- channel sound and a ratio of 2:1 with 6-channel sound.

SUPERIMPOSITION: (Super). Two scenes exposed on the same piece of raw film stock, one on top of the other. Superimposition is usually done in the printer but can be performed in the camera, although this offers less control of the operation.

SUPERSCOPE: A 35 mm anamorphic release print system adopted by RKO Radio Pictures that produced a screen image with an aspect ratio of 2:1 or 2.35:1 when projected with a normal anamorphic lens. The original camera negative was photographed flat, but special printing produced the anamorphic print.

SURROUND CHANNEL: The specific sound channel in a sound reproduction system directing audio signals to speakers placed at the sides and at the rear of the auditorium to provide the added realism of surrounding area sounds.

SURROUND SPEAKERS: Speakers placed at the sides and at the rear of an auditorium to increase the realism of a stereophonic presentation, or to produce other special effects.

SWEETING: Audio post production, at which time audio problems are corrected. Music, narration and sound effects are mixed with original sound elements.

SWISH PAN: A very fast panoramic movement of the camera, resulting in a blurred image. Used sometimes as a transition between sequences or scenes.

SYNCHRONIZER: A mechanism employing a common rotary shaft that has sprockets which, by engaging perforations in the film, pass corresponding lengths of picture and sound films simultaneously, thus effectively keeping the two (or more) films in synchronism during the editing process.

SYNC PULSE: Inaudible timing reference recorded on the magnetic tape used in double-system recording. The source can be a generator in the camera cabled to the tape recorder, or an oscillating crystal in the recorder when the camera also has a crystal. When the sound is transferred to magnetic film for editing, a resolver reads the reference and ensures that the tape runs at the same speed as during shooting. In this way the magnetic workprint can be placed in sync with the images for which the original sound was recorded.

SYNCHRONIZATION: A picture record and a sound record are said to be "in sync" when they are placed relative to each other on a release print so that when they are projected the action will coincide precisely with the accompanying sound.

SYNCHRONIZE: Align sound and image precisely for editing, projection, and printing.




T   [top of page]

T-STOP: A lens marking which indicates the true light transmission of the lens at a given aperture instead of the approximate light transmission indicated by the conventional f-stop marking.

TAF: Telecine Analysis Film (TAF) is an objective tool for initial setup and centering of the controls on a telecine before you transfer images from film to video.

TAIL ENDS, TAILS: The end of a film. The film must be rewound before projection if it is tails out.

TAKE: When a particular scene is repeated and photographed more than once in an effort to get a perfect recording of some special action, each photographic record of the scene or of a repetition of the scene is known as a "take." For example, the seventh scene of a particular sequence might be photographed three times, and the resulting records would be called: Scene 7, Take i; Scene 7, Take 2; and Scene 7, Take 3.

TAPE SPLICE: Film splice made with special splicing tape applied to both sides of the film.

TAPE SPLICER: Device designed for making film splices with special splicing tape. Most use unperforated tape, and then punch perforations into the tape as the splice is made.

TELECINE: A device for scanning motion picture film images and converting them to standard videotape.

35 MM FILM: Film 35 mm wide with four perforations on both edges of each frame. Image frame and sound-track area lie inside the perforations.

THREAD: To place a length of film through an assigned path in a projector. camera, or other film handling device. Also called lacing.

3-D: The common term applied to three-dimensional (stereoscopic) images projected on a screen or viewed as a print. There have been several systems shown in theaters but the discomfort attributed to the necessary eyewear, along with other equipment limitations has, more or less, relegated the present systems to novelties.

THROW: In theatrical projection, the distance from the projector aperture to the center of the screen.

TILT: Tilting. Camera pivotal movement in a vertical plane. Sometimes called vertical panning.

TIME-LAPSE MOVIE: A movie that shows in a few minutes or a few seconds, events that take hours or even days to occur; accomplished by exposing single frames of film at fixed intervals.

TIMING: A laboratory process that involves balancing the color of a film to achieve consistency from scene to scene. Also includes adjusting exposure settings in duplication.

TITLE: The name or designation of a film. Also, any inscription contained in a film for the purpose of conveying information about the film, its message, or its story to the viewer.

TONE: That degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of a print; also referred to a value. Cold toes (bluish) and warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-and-white and color photographs.

TRAILER: A length of film usually found on the end of each release print reel identifying subject, part, or reel number and containing several feet of projection leader. Also a short roll of film containing coming attractions or other messages of interest.

TRANSITION: The passage from one episodic part to another. Usually, film transitions are accomplished rapidly and smoothly, without loss of audience orientation, and are consistent with the established mood of the film.

TRANSMITTANCE: Amount of incident light transmitted by a medium; commonly expressed as percent transmittance.

TRAVELLING MATTE: A process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by optical printing.

TRIANGLE: A three-sided framework of wood or metal, designed to hold the three points of a tripod to limit their spread.

TRIMS: Manual printer controls used for overall color correction. Also, unused portions of shots taken for a film; usually kept until the production is complete.

TRUCK:A camera move in which the camera seems to move toward (Truck In) or away from (Truck Out) the subject. The same effect is called a zoom in live-action filmmaking.

TRUCKING: To move a camera translationally in space as a shot proceeds. usually by means of a dolly or other vehicular camera support. The purpose is to pace, and maintain image size of moving subjects.

TUNGSTEN LIGHT: Light produced by an electrically heated filament, having a continuous spectral distribution.

TWIST: An effect that is produced in new prints by loose winding of the film, emulsion side in, under dry air conditions. If the film is wound emulsion side out under the same conditions, the undulation do not alternate from one edge to the other but are directly opposite one another.




U   [top of page]

ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT: Energy produced by the (invisible) part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths of 100 to 400 nanometers. Popularly known as "black light." UV radiation produces fluorescence in many materials.

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION: Radiation at the short wavelength end of the spectrum, not visible to the eye. It produces fluorescence in some materials.

ULTRAVISION: A 35 mm custom system designed to provide a high definition and improved contrast film presentation on a slightly curved screen. Ultravision was designed as a complete system in which theater design was an integral part. Projectors, lenses, and lamphouses were also modified.

UNDEREXPOSURE: A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative or a dark reversal or print.

UNDERSCAN: Reducing the height and width of the picture on a video monitor so that the edges, and thus portions of the blanking, can be observed.

UNIVERSAL LEADER: A film projection leader, designed according to ANSI document PH22.55 for the current projection rate of 24 frames per second (1 1/2 feet per second), and recommended for use on all release prints. It was designed to replace the Academy leader originally conceived when the motion picture projection rate was 16 frames per second.

UNSQUEEZED PRINT: A print in which the distorted image of an anamorphic negative has not been corrected for normal projection.

UNSTEADINESS: An objectionable amount of vertical motion in the screen image.




V   [top of page]

VIEWER: A mechanical and optical device designed to permit examination of an enlarged image of motion picture film during editing.

VIEW FINDER: A registration device mounted near the top of the animation stand that allows the camera operator to check whether or not the camera is trained on the center of the field.

VIGNETTING: The partial masking, or blocking, of peripheral light rays either by intent, or by accident. In theatrical projection, the blockage of peripheral light rays in a projection lens due to a lens barrel that is too long, or to a lamphouse optical system that is not correctly matched to the limiting aperture of the projection lens. In photography, the intentional masking of peripheral light rays to soften and enhance a photograph.

VITC (VERTICAL INTERVAL TIME CODE): Time code that is recorded in the vertical blanking interval about the active picture area. Can be read from video tape in the "still" mode.

VOICE ARTIST: An actor who performs the voices for the animated characters during a recording.

VOICE-OVER-NARRATION: A sound and picture shot relationship in which a narrator's voice accompanies picture action.




W   [top of page]

WIDESCREEN: General term for form of film presentation in which the picture shown has an aspect ration greater than 1.33:1.

WILD: Picture or sound shot without synchronous relationship to the other.

WIPE: Optical transition effect in which one image is replaced by another at a boundary edge moving in a selected pattern across the frame.

WORKPRINT: Any picture or sound track print, usually a positive, intended for use in the editing process to establish through a series of trail cut- tings the finished version of a film. The purpose is to preserve the original intact (and undamaged) until the cutting points have been established. <




X   [top of page]

XENON BULB: The quartz envelope containing the two electrodes that produce an are in a high-pressure environment of xenon gas.

XFR: Shorthand slang for "transfer."




Y   [top of page]

YELLOW: Minus-blue subtractive primary used in the three-color process.




Z   [top of page]

ZOOM-IN: A continuous changing of the camera lens focal length, which gradually narrows down the area of the picture being photographed, giving the effect of continuously enlarging the subject.

ZOOM-OUT: A continuous changing of the camera lens focal length, which gradually enlarges the area being photographed, giving the effect of a continuously diminishing subject.






Acknowledgements

Dr. Paul Lazarus, III, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL. Motion Picture Course CMP103, S1 1993.

Kodak World Wide Student Program Student Filmmaker's Handbook 1991.


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