| General Film Glossary
A & B CUTTING: A method of assembling
original material in two separate rolls, allowing optical effects to be made by double
printing (A and B Printing).
A OR B WIND: When a roll of 16 mm
film, perforated along one edge, is held so that the outside end of the film leaves the
roll at the top and toward the right, winding "A" should have the perforations
on the edge of the film toward the observer, and winding "B" should have the
perforations on the edge away from the observer. In both cases, the emulsion surface
should face inward on the roll.
A TAKES: Good takes. Also known
as circle takes simply because they are noted by circling the take numbers on the actual
A WIND: When you hold a roll of
16 mm or other single-perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward
the right, the perforations will be along the edge toward the observer.
ABRASION MARKS: Scratches on film
caused by dirt, improper handling, grit, emulsion pile-ups, and certain types of film
damage (e.g., tom perforations).
ACADEMY APERTURE: In projection,
the aperture cutout, designed as specified by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts
and Sciences that provides for a screen-image aspect ratio of approximately 1.37:1; also
called "sound aperture."
ACADEMY LEADER: A non-projected
identification and timing count-down film leader designed to specifications of the
American Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences, and placed at the head end of a
print reel. The countdown cueing information is related to "feet" which, in the
silent days, meant projection at 16 frames per second, or 1 foot per second.
ACTION: The movement of the
subject within the camera field of view. The command given by a director.
ADDITIVE LAMPHOUSE: A printer
lamphouse consisting of three light sources, one for each color record.
ADDITIVE PRINTER: Prints from
color originals or intermediates; uses red, green, and blue lights that are controlled
separately to produce the correct composite-color printing light for each shot in the
ADDITIVE PRINTING: The use or
three separate colored sources red, green, blue are combined to form the light source that
exposes the film. Modem additive printers separate white light from a tungsten-halogen
bulb into its red, green and blue components by using a set of diachronic mirrors.
ADVANCE: The separation between a
point on the sound track of a film and the corresponding picture image.
ANALOG: An electrical signal that
is continuously variable.
ANALYTICAL DENSITY: Measurement
of the amount of yellow, cyan, and magenta dye in an image.
ANAMORPHIC IMAGE: An image that
has been squeezed in one direction, usually horizontally, by an anamorphic lens.
ANAMORPHIC LENS: A lens that
produces a "squeezed" image on film in the camera. When the film is projected on
a screen, an appropriate lens reverses the effect, and the image spreads out to lifelike
proportions. Designed for wide-screen movie photography and projection.
ANAMORPHIC RELEASE PRINT: A print
in which the images are compressed horizontally.
ANGEL HAIR: Fine hair-like
skiving, or slivers, caused when the film edge rubs against a sharp edge or burr in the
projector. Also produced when excessive film/gate misalignment is present.
ANGLE: With reference to the
subject, the direction from which a picture is taken. The camera-subject relationship in
terms of the immediate surroundings
ANIMATION: The making of
inanimate objects to appear mobile. This can be done by exposing one or two frames of
movie film and then moving the objects slightly and exposing one or two more frames, etc.
When the movie is projected, the objects will appear to have moved by themselves.
ANIMATION CAMERA: A motion
picture camera with special capability for animation work, which usually includes frame
and footage counters, the ability to expose a single frame at a time, reverse-filming
capability, and parallax-free viewing.
ANIMATOR: An artist who uses the
techniques of frame-by-frame film making to give his artwork the illusion of movement.
ANSWER PRINT: The first print
(combining picture and sound, if a sound picture), in release form, offered by the
laboratory to the producer for acceptance. It is usually studied carefully to determine
whether changes are required prior to printing the balance of the order.
APERTURE: (1)Lens: The orifice,
usually an adjustable iris, which limits the amount of light passing through a lens. (2)
Camera: In motion picture cameras, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame
exposed. (3) Projector: In motion picture projectors, the mask opening that defines the
area of each frame projected.
APERTURE PLATE: A metal plate
containing the aperture that is inserted into a projector or camera.
APPLE BOXES: Wooden boxes in
three basic sizes (full, half, and quarter) used on the set in a variety of ways--to raise
actors, furniture, lights, etc.
ASA: Exposure Index or speed
rating that denotes the film sensitivity, defined by the American National Standards
Institution. Actually defined only for black-and-white films, but also used in the trade
for color films.
ASPECT RATIO: Proportion of
picture width to height such as 1.37: 1 or 1.85:1, or 2.35:1.
ASSEMBLY: The first stage of
editing, when all the shots are arranged in script order.
AVERAGE GRADIENT: A measure of
contrast of a photographic image , representing the slope of a portion of a characteristic
curve. The term which refers to a numerical means for indicating the contrast or the
B [top of page]
B WIND: When you hold a roll of
16 mm or other single perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward
the right; the perforations will be along the edge away from the observer.
BABY: Focusable studio lamp with
a Fresnel lens and a 500-watt to 1000-watt bulb.
BABY LEGS: Baby Tripod. Very
short tripod used when shooting low camera angles.
BACKDROP: Painted or photographed
background used behind the set windows and doors.
BACKGROUND: A flat piece of
artwork that serves as the setting for the animated action, and which may vary from a
realistically rendered scene to a sheet of colored paper. Abbreviated as BG or BKG.
BACKGROUND LIGHT: The light or
lights used to illuminate the background.
BALANCE STRIPE: A magnetic stripe
on the opposite edge of the film from the magnetic track. Although the purpose of the
stripe is to keep the film level on the reel, some projectors also use it for recording.
BAR SHEET: A printed form, used
by directors and animators in planning the movement of art and camera, on which all the
elements of a film-music, voices, sound effects, visuals-are charted frame-by-frame in
their relationship to time.
BARN DOOR: A frame with
adjustable flaps, attached to the studio light to control unwanted spill light or the
spread of the light beam.
BARNEY: A lightweight padded
covering that generally performs the same function as a blimp. Heated barneys are
sometimes used to facilitate shooting under extremely cold outdoor conditions.
BASE: The transparent, flexible
support, commonly cellulose acetate, on which photographic emulsions are coated to make
BCU: (Big Close-up). A single
feature such as eyes, mouth, hand, etc., filling the screen. Also known as XCU (extreme
BEAT: The musical tempo (of the
sound track) used for timing motion picture action.
BELLY BOARD: A board for mounting a camera as low as possible.
BLACK: The absence of all visible light. Also the absence of any distinguishable colors.
BLACK-AND-WHITE FILM: A film which produces a monochromatic picture in shades of gray. Usually a metallic silver image.
BLACKBODY RADIATOR: A light source which has a continuous smooth spectral distribution.
BLACK LIGHT: Ultraviolet light.
BLIMP: A soundproof enclosure
that completely covers the camera to prevent camera-operating noise from being recorded on
the sound track.
BLINK: Density changes in the
projected image; caused by studio light fluctuation, printer or sensitometric problems, or
BLOCKING THE SCENE: Establishing
the positions and movements of actors and/or camera in the scene.
BLOW UP: -(part of frame)- In
transferring an image by means of an optical printer, it is possible to enlarge a properly
proportioned fraction of the original image to full frame size in the copy, or to enlarge
an original 16 mm image to 35 mm size.
BLOW-UP PRINTING: Optical printing resulting in a picture image size other than that of the original film.
BLUE-SCREEN: The filming or
videotaping of actors, props or objects in front of a blue-screen (or green-screen). In
post-production, the blue or green is replaced by another element, such as background,
using digital or optical special effects techniques.
BOOM: A long, adjustable arm used to position a microphone during production.
BOTTOM LIGHTING: When the source
of illumination for photographing a scene comes from beneath the artwork, rather than
above it; used for a variety of reasons, such as the creation of glowing letters or stars,
or to photograph several layers of drawings at once for a pencil test. Also known as Under
BOUNCE LIGHT: Light that is reflected off ceilings and walls to illuminate the subject
BREAKDOWN: The separation of a roll of camera original negative into its individual scenes.
BREAKDOWN TABLE: A film handling
unit that is one component of platter system. It is used to unload (break down) the large
film roll from the platter onto the individual shipping reels prior to shipment. The unit
is also used in loading the platter (makeup). See MAKEUP TABLE.
BROAD LIGHT: Soft, floodlighttype of illumination unit; usually not focusable.
BURN-IN: The photographic double
exposure of a title or other subject matter over previously exposed film.
BUTT SPLICE: Film splice in which
the ends come together without overlapping; ends are held together by splicing tape.
BUZZ TRACK: A sound test film
with a specially made sound track that is used for determining the proper lateral
positioning of the scanning beam slit in relation to film travel.
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CAMERA AXIS: Any imaginary line
running exactly through the optical center of the camera lens.
CAMERA LOG: A record sheet giving
details of the scenes photographed on a roil of original negative.
CAMERA OPERATOR: The person
responsible for translating the instructions on the exposure sheet into camera moves and
photographing the artwork.
CAMERA ORIGINAL: Film exposed in a camera.
CAMERASCOPE: A wide-screen
presentation process compatible with CinemaScope-type presentations.
CC FILTERS: Color-compensating
hiters. A series of filters in yellow, cyan, magenta, blue, green, and red, growing in
density by small steps. Used for precise color correction at the printing stage, but
sometimes also when filming, especially in scientific cinematography.
CEMENT SPLICE: Film splice made
by using a liquid solvent cement to weld the overlapping ends together.
CEMENT SPLICER: Device used to
make cement splices. Some cement splicers can also be used to make overlapping tape
CENTURY STAND: A metal stand for
positioning a lighting accessory such as a flag, cookie, scrim, etc.
CGI: Computer Generated Imagery.
CHECK: The step in production in
which all elements of a scene are examined and checked against the exposure sheet to
ensure they are correct before being filmed. In studio animation, the person responsible
for this step is the Checker.
CHECKER-BOARD CUTTING: A method
of assembling alternate scenes of negative in A and B rolls allowing prints to be made
without visible splices.
CHROMAKEY: A method of
electronically matting or inserting an image from one camera into the picture produced by
another. Also called "keying", the system uses a solid color background behind
the subject to be inserted and signal processing through a special effects generator.
CHROMINANCE: The color portion of
a video signal.
CINEMASCOPE: Trade name of a
system of anamorphic wide-screen presentation. The first commercially successful
anamorphic system for the presentation of wide-screen pictures combined with stereophonic
sound. The 35 mm negative camera image is compressed horizontally by 50 percent using a
special anamorphic camera lens. Upon projection, the 35 mm print image is expanded
horizontally by the same amount using a similar anamorphic projection lens. Depending on
the type of sound used in the print, the screen image has an aspect ratio of 2:35:1
(optical sound), or 2:55:1 (4-track magnetic sound).
CINEMIRACLE: A wide-screen
presentation, as in Cinerama, that used three separate 35 mm film strips projected on a
large, deeply curved screen. One of the main differences, however, was the consolidation
of the three projectors in a single booth away from the audience. This was accomplished by
the use of mirrors on the two outer projectors to maintain picture orientation.
CINEPANORAMIC: A wide-screen
process compatible with CinemaScope- type presentations.
CLAPPER BOARD: Also called
"clapstick" or "clapper." Two short boards hinged together and painted
in a matching design. When sharply closed, they provide an audible and visible clue which
is recorded on film and sound tape simultaneously. This helps to synchronize the picture
film with the magnetic film in the editing process. A slate with relevant information,
like scene and take number, is usually attached to a clapper board. Modern cameras are
often equipped with an electronic slate. See slate, electronic.
CLAW: Mechanism used in most camera and projectors to move the film intermittently.
CLOSE-UP: A detail photographed
from such a distance that only a small portion of the subject fills a frame of film.
COATED LENS: A lens covered with a very thin layer of transparent material that reduces
the amount of light reflected by the surface or the lens. A coated lens usually transmits more
light than an uncoated lens at the same f-stop because of less flare.
COLLIMATED: A beam of light is
said to be collimated when all of its rays have been made parallel.
COLOR ANALYZER: A device for
determining the correct printing light ratios for printing color negatives.
COLOR BALANCE: The perceptual
appearance of a color image of film as a function of the ration of exposures of each of
these primary color records on the film.
COLOR CORRECTION: The altering of
the color balance by modifying the ratio of the printing light values.
COLOR DUPLICATE (DUPE) NEGATIVE:
Duplicate with a negative color image; made from a negative color original. Typically used
for making release prints.
COLOR FILM: Color film carries
one or more emulsions which after processing.
COLOR INTERNEGATIVE: Negative-image
color duplicate made from a positive color original. Typically used for making release
COLOR NEGATIVE: A negative
(opposite) record of the original scene. Colors are the complementaries of the colors in
the scene; light areas are dark, and dark areas are light.
COLOR POSITIVE: A positive record
of the original scene.
COLOR PRINT FILM: Film designed
for making positive prints from color originals and color duplicates.
COLOR REVERSAL FILM: Film that
after processing has a color positive image. Can be an original camera film or a film in
which other positive films are printed.
COLOR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE:
Color duplicate negative made by the reversal process directly from an original color
COLOR SATURATION: A term used to
describe the brilliance or purity of a color. When colors present in a film image are
projected at the proper screen brightness and without interference from stray light, the
colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are said to be saturated.
COLOR SENSITIVITY: Portion of the
spectrum to which a film is sensitive. The ability of the eye or photographic stock to
respond to various wave- lengths of light.
COLOR SEPARATION NEGATIVE:
Black-and-white negative made from red, green, or blue light from an original subject or
from positive color film.
COLOR TEMPERATURE: The color
quality expressed in degrees Kelvin (K) - of the light source. The higher the color
temperature, the bluer the light; the lower the temperature, the redder the light.
COLOR TEST: Footage of a film
that has been timed and which is used as a check to make sure that colors, characters, and
backgrounds do not clash in the finished film. See timing.
COMBINED NEGATIVE: Negative film
containing the picture and the sound track.
COMPLEMENTARY COLOR: Color that
is minus one of the primary colors. Cyan is minus red-cyan and red are complementary
colors; yellow is minus blue-yellow and blue are complementary colors; magenta is minus
green-magenta and green are complementary colors. Produces white when mixed in equal parts
with the primary color to which it is complementary.
COMPONENT VIDEO: A system of
signal recording and processing that maintains the original video elements separately
rather than combined (encoded) into a single, composite signal.
COMPOSITE PRINT: A print of a
film that contains both picture and sound track. Films regularly shown in theaters are
composite prints. Also called Release Print.
COMPOSITE VIDEO: A video signal
in which the luminance and chrominance elements have been combined, as is NTSC, PAL and
COMPOSITING: The process of
combining two or more separate images into a single, new image.
COMPOSITION: The distribution,
balance, and general relationship of masses and degrees of light and shade, line, and
color within a picture area.
CONFORM: Match the original film
to the final edited work print.
CONTACT PRINT: Print made by
exposing the receiving material in contact with the original. Images are the same size as
the original images, but have a reversed left-to-right orientation.
CONTACT PRINTER: Printer in which
the two pieces of film are in contact, usually emulsion-to-emulsion, during exposure.
CONTINUITY: The smooth flow of
action or events from one shot or sequence to the next.
CONTINUOUS CONTACT PRINTER: A
printing machine where the emulsion of the negative film is in direct physical contact
with the positive raw stock emulsion, and the two films are moving continuously across the
CONTINUOUS MOTION PROJECTOR: A
projector in which the film moves through the projector gate in nonintermittent motion.
CONTRAST: (1) The general term
for describing the tone separation in a print in relation to a given difference in the
light-and-shade of the negative or subject from which it was made. Thus,
"contrast" is the general term for the property called "gamma" (Y),
which is measured by making an H & D Curve for the process under study. (2) The range
of tones in a photographic negative or positive expressed as the ratio of the extreme
opacities or transparencies or as the difference between the extreme densities. This range
is more properly described as "scale" or "latitude." (3) The ability
of a photographic material, developer, or process as a whole to differentiate among small
graduations in the tones of the subject.
CONTROL STRIP: A short length of
film containing a series of densities to check on laboratory procedures.
COOKIE (kukaloris): A thin panel
with regular or irregular shapes cut out, permitting light directed through it to form a
pattern on a background.
CORE (Film): A plastic cylinder
on which film is wound, shipped and stored.
CORRECTION FILTER: A medium
enabling a color change.
CRAB DOLLY: A camera-mounting
device with wheels that can be steered in any direction. Usually fitted with an
CRADLE: A lens support for heavy
lenses, used to improve steadiness and protect the lens mount from damage.
CRANE: A large camera-mounting
vehicle with a rotating and high-rising arm, operated electrically or manually.
CREASES: A crease is defined as a
distinct sharp fold-line or crack in a piece of film.
CREDITS: Titles of acknowledgement for the production.
CRI: Color Reversal Intermediate, a duplicate color negative prepared by reversal processing.
CROPPING: To change, delete, or
otherwise alter the size of an image being projected or viewed as a print. In theatrical
projection it is usually the result of "home made" aperture plates, improper
screen masking, wrong focal length lenses, etc. CROSS ABRASIONS: Short scratches across
the film width that occur when sections of the roll shift from side-to-side during
CS (Close Shot): Head and torso down to the waist line filling the frame.
CU (Close-up): Head and shoulders filling the frame.
CUT: (1) The instantaneous change
from one scene to another. Successive frames contain the last frame of one scene and the
first frame of the following scene. (2) To stop operation of camera, action, and/or sound
recording equipment. (3) To sever or splice film in the editing process.
CUTTING: The selection and assembly of the various scenes or sequences of a reel of film.
CYAN: Blue-green; the complement of red or the minus-red subtractive used in three-color
D [top of page]
DAILIES: Also called
"rushes." Picture and sound work prints of a day's shooting; usually an untimed
one-light print, made without regard to color balance. Delivered from the lab daily during
the shooting period, for viewing by the director, cameramen, etc. so that the action can be
checked and the best takes selected; usually shown before the next day's shooting begins.
DATASHEET: A publication giving technical details of a specific film product.
DAYLIGHT: Light consisting of a
natural combination of sunlight and sky- light (approximately 6500 degrees K).
DECIBEL (dB): Unit of loudness measured on a logarithmic scale. The human ear can perceive
1 dB changes in loudness in the aural range.
DEFINITION: The clarity or
distinctness with which detail of an image is rendered; fidelity of reproduction of sound
characteristics of a film or a filter. The negative logarithm to the base ten of the
transmittance (or reflectance) of the sample. A sample which transmits 2 of the incident
light has a transmittance of 0.50, or 50 percent and a density of 0.30.
DEPTH OF FIELD: The range of
object distances within which objects are in satisfactory sharp focus in a photograph.
DEPTH OF FOCUS: The range through
which a photographic film or plate can be moved forward and backward with respect to the
lens while retaining satisfactory sharp focus on an object at a given distance.
DEVELOPER: A solution used to
turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films
DEVELOPMENT: Process of making a
visible film image from the latent image produced during exposure.
DIAGONAL SCRATCHES: Slanted cross
scratches on the film usually caused by the film riding over the edge of a roller flange.
More common in platter transport systems.
DIALOGUE: The portion of the
sound track that is recorded by the voice artists and spoken by the characters on the
DIALOG REPLACEMENT: Technique of
recording dialog under the acoustically perfect conditions of the dubbing studio, to
replace the poor dialog of scenes already shot on location. Actors time the delivery of
their lines so as to match their lip movement as viewed on the screen.
DIAPHRAGM: An adjustable opening
mounted behind or between the elements or a lens used to control the amount of light that
reaches the film. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers.
DICHROIC FILTER: A filter used on
tungsten lamps to convert their color temperature td that of daylight. The filter reflects
excessive red and transmits light that is bluer than originally.
DIFFERENTIAL FOCUS: Also called
"split focus." Focusing at a point between two subjects in depth, to accommodate
them both in the depth-of-field range, i.e., both in sharp focus.
DIFFRACTION: Tile spreading of
light as it passes the edges of opaque objects or through narrow slits. Light also is
diffracted when passing through a lens. The effects of this distortion on images is
greater as the aperture becomes smaller.
DIFFUSION: The spreading of light
rays from a rough reflecting surface or by transmission of light through a translucent
DIGITAL: A system whereby a
continuously variable (analog) signal is broken down and encoded into discrete binary bits
that represent a mathematical model of the original signal.
DIGITAL EFFECTS: Special effects,
such as picture compression, rotation, reversal, etc., performed with a digital effects
Sound-recording process in which sound waves are recorded as digital bits. During
playback, a digital-to-analog conversion occurs that changes the digital bits back into
sound waves. Digital recording produces high-quality true sound that does not contain any
DIGITAL VIDEOTAPE: A format which
stores an image on tape as a binary code, allowing it to be moved through various digital
devices with minimal loss of quality.
DIGITAL STORAGE DEVICE: A device
using magnetic or optical disks to store and retrieve digital images and/ or information.
DIMENSION 150: A special 70 mm
system developed in 1963 that consisted of special optics used in printers and projectors.
The manufactured prints could be shown on deeply curved screens such as those used in
DIMMER: An electrical device,
normally in the form of variable resistance or load, that reduces electrical energy to a
lamp, usually by reducing voltage.
DIRECTOR: The person who
interprets the written book or script. He over- sees all aspects of the production.
DISK STORAGE DEVICE: A device
using magnetic or optical disks to store and retrieve digital images and/or information.
DISSOLVE: An optical or camera
effect in which one scene gradually fades out at the same time that a second scene fades
in. There is an apparent double exposure during the center portion of a dissolve sequence
where the two scenes overlap.
DISTRIBUTOR: Firm that sells,
leases, and rents films.
DOLLY: (1) A truck built to any
camera and camera operator to facilitate movement of the camera during the shooting of
scenes. (2) To move the camera toward or away from the subject while shooting a scene.
DOUBLE (MULTIPLE) EXPOSURE: The
photographic recording of two (or more) images on a single strip of film. The images may
be either superimposed or side by side in any relationship, sometimes individually
DOUBLE-FRAME: Identical views
photographed twice (two frames) instead of once. This technique cuts in half either the
speed of a movement or the number of drawings required for a complete action, some times
called "on twos."
DOUBLE SYSTEM RECORDING: Synchronous
sound recording on a recorder that is separate from the camera. Recorders are typically
magnetic with sync-pulse capability.
DOUBLE SYSTEM SOUND: Recording of
sound on tape and picture on film; synchronization occurs during editing.
DROP FRAME: A type of SMPTE time
code designed to match clock time exactly. Two frames of code are dropped every minute, on
the minute, except every tenth minute, to correct for the fact that color frames occur at
a rate of 29.97 per second, rather than an exact 30 frame per second.
DUBBING: The combination of
several sound components into a single recording.
DUPE, DUPE NEGATIVE: A duplicate
negative, made from a master positive by printing and development or from an original
negative by printing followed by reversal development.
DUSTING: The formation and
accumulation of fine particles in the projector gate area. Can be caused by material
scraped from the film due to misalignment of film in the gate, excessive tension, lack of
proper lubrication, etc. See Angel hair.
DYE: In photography, the result
of color processing in which the silver grains or incorporated color couplers have been
converted into the appropriate dye to form part of the color image.
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EDGE GUIDE: A fixed edge or
shoulder against which the film is physically pressed to ensure steadiness in the lateral
EDGE NUMBERS: (Key Numbers /
Footage Numbers) Sequential numbers printed along the edge of a strip of film by the
manufacturer to designate identification.
EDIT: To arrange the various
shots, scenes, and sequences, or the elements of the sound track, in the order desired to
create the finished film.
EDIT SYNC (LEVEL SYNC) (EVEN SYNC):
The relation between the picture and sound records during editing, when they are in
alignment and not offset as for projection.
EDITING: The process of selecting
the shots and sequences that will be included in the final film, their length, and the
order in which they will appear.
EDITOR: The individual who
decides what scenes and takes are to be used, how, where, in what sequence, and at what
length they will appear.
EDL (EDIT DECISION LIST): List of
edits prepared during off-line editing.
EI/ASA SPEED: Film sensitivity to
light as rated in numbers established by the American Standard Association (now American
National Standards Institute, Inc.).
EMULSION SIDE: The side of a film
coated with emulsion.
EMULSION SPEED: The
photosensitivity of a film, usually expressed as an index number based on the film
manufacturer's recommendations for the use of the film under typical conditions of
exposure and development.
ENCODER: A circuit that combines
the primary red, green and blue signals into a composite video signal.
ESTABLISHING SHOT: A shot usually
close to the beginning of a scene defining the place, time, and other important elements
of the action.
EXCHANGE: A depository and
inspection/distribution center for theatrical release prints. Exchanges are located in
approximately 35 regional areas within the United States roughly dependent on theater and
EXISTING LIGHT: Available light,
Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine.
For photographic purposes, existing light represents the light that is already on the
scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon sighs,
candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight.
EXPOSURE: Amount of light that
acts on a photographic material; product of illumination intensity (controlled by the lens
opening) and duration (controlled by the shutter opening and the frame rate).
EXPOSURE INDEX (EI): Number
assigned to a film that expresses its relative sensitivity to light. The EI is based on
the film emulsion speed, a standard exposure technique, and specific processing solutions.
EXPOSURE LATITUDE: Degree to
which film can be underexposed or overexposed and still yield satisfactory results.
EXPOSURE METER, INCIDENT: A meter
calibrated to read and integrate all the light aimed at and falling on a subject within a
large area. (Scale may be calibrated in foot-candles or in photographic exposure
EXPOSURE METER, REFLECTANCE: A
meter calibrated to read the amount of light, within a more restricted area, reflecting
from the surface of a subject or an overall scene. (Scale may be calibrated in
foot-candles or in photographic exposure settings.)
EXPOSURE SETTING: The lens
opening selected to expose the film.
EXPOSURE SHEET: The
frame-by-frame Instructions for the camera operator that accompany the artwork when it is
sent to be photographed.
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F-NUMBER: A symbol that expresses
the relative aperture of a lens. For example, a lens having a relative aperture of 1.7
would be marked f/1.7. The smaller the f-number, the more light the lens transmits.
FADE: Exposure of motion picture
film either in the camera or during sub- sequent operations, so that, for a fade-in,
starting with no exposure and extending for a predetermined number of frames, each
successive frame receives a systematically greater exposure that the frame preceding it,
until full normal exposure for the scene has been attained. From this frame on, successive
frames receive identical exposure for the remainder of the take.
FALL-OFF: The gradual reduction
in luminance from the screen center to the edges and comers.
FEATHERED LIGHT: A light moved
off axis so that only the weaker edge of the light pattern strikes the subject. A natural
shading or fall-off results.
FIELD OF VIEW: The portion of the
scene in front of the camera represented within the limits of the camera aperture at the
focal plane. Area of field thus varies with focal length of lens and camera-to-subject
FIELD (VIDEO): One-half of a
complete picture (or frame), containing all the odd or even scanning lines of the
pictured, In television, one of two complete sequences of raster lines forming an image.
FILL LIGHT: Light used to fill in
FILM (motion picture film): A
thin, flexible, transparent ribbon with perforations along one or both edges; it bears
either a succession of images or a sensitive layer capable of producing photographic
FILM BASE: Flexible, usually
transparent, support on which photographic emulsions are coated.
FILM CAN: Metal container
designed to hold rolls, spools, or reels of motion-picture films.
FILM CEMENT: A special
combination of solvents and solids used to make overlap splices on motion picture film by
its solvent action and subsequent welding of the film at the junction.
FILM GATE: Components that make
up the pressure and aperture plates in a camera, printer, or projector.
FILM GAUGE: Width of the standard sizes of motion picture films.
FILM IDENTIFICATION CODE: Letter which identifies film type.
FILM NUMBER: An identification code number given to every film product.
FILM-TO-TAPE TRANSFER: The process of transferring an image captured on film to videotape.
FILM PERFORATION: Holes punched
at regular intervals for the length of film, intended to be engaged by pins, pegs, and
sprockets as the film is transported through the camera, projector, or other equipment.
FILTER: A piece of glass, gelatin
or other transparent material used over the lens or light source to emphasize, eliminate
or change the color or density of the entire scene or certain elements in the scene.
FILTER LAYER: In a photographic
film, a thin, uniform, colored layer that is coated above or below the emulsion to serve
as a light filter; it controls the spectral quality of the light reaching the emulsion.
FINAL CUT: Last editing of a
workprint before conforming is done or before sound workprints are mixed.
FINE GRAIN: Emulsion in which
silver particles are very small.
FIRST PRINT: The first trial
composite (married) print containing both picture and sound for the purpose of checking
picture and sound quality.
FISHPOLE: A long, lightweight
handheld rod on which a microphone can be mounted in situations where the boom is not
FLAG: Shadow-casting device made
of plywood or cloth stretched on a metal frame. Specific types of flag include the cutter,
finger, gobo, and target.
FLANGE: The rim on a roller used
for guiding the film. Also, a large disc used on a rewind to take up film on a core. A
pair of flanges (discs) that screw together is called a split reel.
FLASHING: Technique for lowering
contrast by giving a slight uniform exposure to film before processing.
FLAT: An image is said to be
"flat" if its contrast is too low. Flatness is a defect that does not
necessarily affect the entire density scale of a reproduction to the same degree. Thus, a
picture may be "flat" in the high light areas, or "flat" in the shadow
regions. or both.
FLUTTER: In sound, rapid period
variation of frequency caused by unsteadiness of the film or tape drive.
FOCAL LENGTH: The distance from
the optical center of a lens to the point at which parallel rays of light passing through
it converge (the focal point).
FOCAL PLANE: The area in space on
which parallel rays of light refracted through a lens focus to form sharp images.
FOCUS: To adjust a lens so that
it produces the sharpest visual image on a screen, on a camera film plane, etc.
FOG: Darkening or discoloring of
a negative or print, or lightening or discoloring of a reversal material. Causes include
accidental exposure to light or X-rays, overdevelopment, using outdated film, and storing
film in a hot, humid place.
FOLEY: Background sounds added
during audio sweetening to heighten realism, e.g., footsteps, bird calls, heavy breathing,
short gasps, etc.
FOLLOW FOCUS: To change the focus
setting of a lens as a scene is being photographed to keep a moving subject in sharp
FOOTAGE: A method of measuring
film length and therefore, screen time. As 90 feet of 35 mm film equal one minute of
screen time, 35 mm footage is used in many studios as a measure of an animator's weekly
output. Animators also refer to the length of scenes in feet, rather than in seconds or
minutes-a 30-foot scene, rather than a 20-second one.
FOOTAGE NUMBERS: Also called edge
numbers. Sequential numbers which are pre-exposed or printed in ink at regular intervals
on the edge of the film outside or in between the perforations.
FOOTLAMBERT: US luminance
measurement unit (l footlambert = 3.425 candelas per square meter).
FORCE-PROCESS: Develop film for
longer than the normal time to compensate for underexposure.
FOREGROUND: The part of the scene
in front of the camera, represented within the limits of the camera aperture, occupied by
the object(s) nearest to the camera.
FORMAT: The size or aspect ratio
of a motion picture frame.
FPM: Feet Per Minute. expressing
the speed of film moving through a mechanism.
FPS: Frames Per Second.
indicating the number or images exposed per sec end.
FRAME: The individual picture
image on a strip of motion picture film.
FRAME-BY-FRAME: Filming in which
each frame is exposed separately, as the object being photographed must be altered before
each exposure in order to create the illusion of movement in the finished film. as opposed
to the more usual method of filming in which the film runs place before it.through the
camera at a steady, prescribed rate to record action taking
FRAME COUNTER: An indicator which
shows the exact number of frames exposed.
FRAME LINE: The separation
between adjacent image frames on motion picture film.
FRAME LINE MARKING: A mark placed
on the edge of the film between every fourth perforation as an aid to splicing in frame
when no image or frame line is visible. On 70 mm film, a small punched hole placed between
every fifth perforation.
FRAME (VIDEO): A complete
television Picture made up of two fields, produced at the rate of approximately 29.97 Hz
(color), or 30Hz (black& white).
FREEZE FRAME: An optical printing
effect in which a single frame image is repeated so as to appear stationary when
FREQUENCY RESPONSE: Ability of
the photographic sound track to reproduce the full spectral range of sounds.
FRONT END: General terms for all
production and preparation work up to the Answer Print stage before Release Printing.
FULL-COAT: Magnetic film that is
entirely covered on one side with the recording medium.
FX: Abbreviation for
"effects," such as sound effects or special effects.
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GAFFER: The chief electrician on
the film crew.
GAFFER'S TAPE: Wide and strong
adhesive tape used for securing the lighting instruments, stands, cables, etc., on the
GATE: The aperture assembly at
which the film is exposed in a camera, printer or projector.
GATE TENSION: The resistance to
film movement produced by adjustable spring-loaded rails in the projector gate.
GATOR GRIP: An alligator-type
grip used to attach lightweight lamps to sets, furniture, pipes, etc., mainly on location.
A stronger variety is called a gaffer grip.
GAUGE: Refers to the format of
the film stock, i.e., super 8, 16 mm, or 35mm.
GEARED HEAD: A type of tripod
head in which the pan and tilt movements are operated by crank handles through a gear
system. These gears can be regulated.
GELATIN FILTER (GEL): A light
filter consisting of a gelatin sheet in which light-absorbing pigment or dye is
GENEVA MOVEMENT: A mechanical
device that produces intermittent film movement in the projector. The principle behind the
movement involves a rotating cam and pin that intermittently engages in a four- slotted
star wheel, also known as a Geneva cross or Maltese cross. During the pin/slot engagement,
the star wheel shaft containing the intermittent sprocket rotates 90", or one frame.
At normal projection speed, this intermittent rotation occurs 24 times per second.
GOBO: Panel of opaque material on
a footed stand with an adjustable arm. Used to confine the area a light illuminates, or to
keep light from shining directly into the camera lens. A flag is sometimes called a
"gobo," particularly when it is used to protect the lens from direct light.
GRAININESS: The character of a
photographic image when, under normal viewing conditions, it appears to be made up of
distinguishable particles, or grains. This is due to the grouping together, or
"clumping" of the individual silver grains, which are by themselves far too
small to be perceived under normal viewing conditions.
GRANULARITY: Nonuniformity in a
photographic image that can be measured with a densitometer.
GRAY CARD: A commercially
prepared card that reflects Is percent of the light hitting it. Visually it appears
neutral, or a middle gray halfway between black and white.
GRIP: A member of a film crew
responsible for laying camera tracks, setting flags, etc.
GROOVED TOOTH: A tooth on the
intermittent sprocket that has a groove worn at the base on the pull-down side as a result
of wear. It normally appears on all the teeth. The sprocket should be replaced although
film damage does not always occur immediately.
GROSS FOG: The density of the
base of the film plus the density of the fog in the emulsion. Also known as D-min and base
GUILLOTINE SPLICER: Device used
for butt-splicing film with splicing tape.
H [top of page]
HALATION: A defect of
photographic films and plates. Light forming an image on the film is scattered by passing
through the emulsion or by reflection at the emulsion or base surfaces. This scattered
light causes a local fog which is especially noticeable around image of light sources or
sharply defined highlight areas.
HALIDE: Compound with a halogen,
such as chlorine, bromine, iodine.
HARD: (1) As applied to a
photographic emulsion or developer, having a high contrast. (2) As applied to the lighting
of a set, specular or harsh, giving sharp dense shadows and glaring highlight.
HARD LIGHT: Light made up of
directional rays of light that creates strong, hard, well-defined shadows; sometimes
called specular light.
HAZE FILTER: These filter provide
varying degrees of blue-light and green-light absorption.
HEAD, CAMERA: Also called
"tripod head." A device for mounting the camera on a tripod or other supports.
It allows for vertical and horizontal camera movements, called tilting and panning
HEAD END, HEADS: The beginning of
a reel where the film image is upside down when the film is threaded into a projector for
HEAD- RECORDING: On a tape
recorder, printer or projector an electromagnet across which the tape or film is drawn and
which magnetizes the coating on the tape base during recording.
HEAT FILTER: An optical device
that absorbs or reflects the nonvisible heat energy radiating from the are lamp source
before it reaches the film plane of the projector.
HEATER BARNEY: Padded camera
cover with electric heating elements; used for cold-weather filming.
HIGH-HAT: Low camera support of
HIGH-SPEED CAMERA: A camera
designed to expose film at rates faster than 24 frames per second. Used to obtain
HIGHLIGHTS: Visually the
brightest, or photometrically the most luminant, areas of a subject. In the negative
image, the areas of greatest density; in the positive image, the areas of least density.
HMI LIGHTS: Metal halide lamps
are fundamentally mercury arcs with metal halide additives to adjust the color balance.
Usually rated at approximately 5400 K. For daylight-balanced films.
HOT: Referring to too much light
in an area, or to an excessively bright highlight.
HUE: Sensation of the color
itself; measured by the dominant wavelength.
I [top of page]
ILLUMINANT: Light source used to
project the film image or to expose the film.
IMAGE, LATENT IMAGE: The
invisible image formed in a camera or printer by the action of light on a photographic
IMAGE ORIENTATION: Laboratory
function that assures that the projected image is properly formed on the screen, and that
the sound track is on the appropriate side of the film.
IMAGE SPREAD: Exposure slightly
beyond the edges of the images formed by light striking the film.
INFRARED: Nonvisible, long
wavelength radiation from a carbon or xenon are that contributes to the heating of the
film and equipment.
INTEGRAL DENSITY: Measurement of
how incident light is affected by the integral absorption of the color image rather than
by the individual dye.
INTENSITY, LIGHT: A term
referring to the power (strength) of a light source. The total visible radiation
produced by the light source.
INTERMEDIATE: Film used only for
making duplicates from which other duplicates or prints are made. Does not include camera
INTERMITTENT: Not continuous but
equally spaced (sometimes random) motion, as the intermittent (24 fps) motion of film
through a projector.
INTERNEGATIVE (DUPE NEGATIVE):
Color negative made from a color negative. For making release prints.
INTERPOSITIVE: A color master
IN THE CAN: Describes a scene or
program which has been completed. Also, "That's a wrap".
INFRARED: Nonvisible radiation
from the long wavelength portion of the spectrum.
INSERT EDIT: An electronic edit
in which the existing control track is not replaced during the editing process, The new
segment is inserted into program material already recorded on the video tape.
INTERMITTENT MOVEMENT: The
mechanism or a camera, printer or projector by which each frame is held stationary when
exposed and then advanced to the next.
IFS: Inches Per Second.
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JAM-SYNC: Process of
synchronizing a secondary time code generator with a preselected master time code, i.e.,
synchronizing the smart slate and the audio time code to the same clock.
K [top of page]
K: Degrees Kalvin, the unit of
the color temperature scale.
KEYKODE NUMBER: Kodak's
machine-readable key numbers, Includes I0-digit key number, manufacture identification
code, film code and offset in perforations.
KEY POSE: The characteristic or
main pose in a movement.
KINESCOPE: A film of a video tape
made by shooting the picture on a specially designed television monitor. Also referred to
KINETOSCOPE: An early filmstrip
device developed and devised by Thomas Edison and W. K. L. Dickson.
L [top of page]
LABORATORY: A facility that
specializes in processing and printing film, sometimes offering additional services such
as editing and film storage.
LABORATORY FILM: Film products,
not intended for original photography, but necessary to complete the production process.
LATENT IMAGE: Invisible image in
exposed, undeveloped film; results from exposure to light.
LATENT IMAGE EDGE NUMBERING:
Images placed on the edge of film products in manufacturing that become visible after
LATITUDE: In a photographic
process, the range of exposure over which substantially correct reproduction is obtained.
When the process is represented by an H & D curve, the latitude is the projection on
the exposure axis of that part of the curve which approximates a straight line within the
tolerance permitted for the purpose at hand.
LAYBACK: Transferring the
finished audio track back to the master video tape.
LAYOUT: A detailed drawing of a
shot in which background elements, staging of the action, and camera moves are carefully
worked out and plotted; the stage of production in which these are determined.
LEADER: Any film or strip of
material used for threading a motion picture machine. Leader may consist of short lengths
of blank film attached to the ends of a print to protect the print from damage during the
threading of a projector, or it may be a long length of any kind of film which is used to
establish the film path in a processing machine before the use of the machine for
LENS: An optical device designed
to produce an image on a screen, on a camera film, and in a variety of optical
instruments. Also used to converge, diverge or otherwise control light rays in
applications not involving images.
LIGHT: The main illumination of
LIGHT AXIS: An imaginary line
running exactly through the center of intensity of a light.
LIGHT BALANCING FILTER: Makes
minor color balance adjustments to the light reaching the film.
LIGHT FILTER: A light-absorbing
transparent sheet, commonly consisting of colored glass or dyed gelatin that is placed in
an optical system to control the spectral quality, color, or intensity of the light
passing a given plane.
LIGHT INTENSITY: Degree of light,
per unit, falling on subject; usually expressed in foot-candles.
LIGHT METER: An electrical
exposure meter for measuring light intensity. LIGHT METERS: See EXPOSURE METERS. LIGHT
OUTPUT: The maximum power or energy delivered by a given light: concentrated by a
spotlight, or spread out by a floodlight.
LIGHT PIPING: Fog caused by light
striking the edge of film and traveling along the base to expose the emulsion inside the
magazine or roll.
LIGHTING - BROAD LIGHTING: The
key light illuminates fully the side of the face turned toward the camera.
LIGHTING - SHORT LIGHTING: The
key light illuminates fully the "short" side of the face that is turned away
from the camera.
LIGHTING RATIO: The ratio of the
intensity of key and fill lights to fill light alone.
LIGHT VALVE: Device for
controlling intensity and color quality of light on additive prints.
LIP SYNC: Simultaneous precise
recording of image and sound so that the sound appears to be accurately superimposed on
the image, especially if a person is speaking toward the camera.
LIVE-ACTION: The filming or
videotaping of staged or documentary scenes of people, props and locations.
LONG SHOT (LS): The photographing
of a scene or action from a distance or a wide angle of view so that a large area of the
setting appears on a frame of film, and the scene or objects appear quite small.
LONGITUDINAL SCRATCHES: Scratches
running along the length of film.
LOOP (continuous film): A section
of film spliced end-to-end for use in printing, testing, dubbing, etc.
LOOP (projector or camera): The
path in which the film is formed to allow the film to travel intermittently through the
LOW KEY: A scene is reproduced in
a low key if the tone range of the reproduction is largely in the high density portion of
the H & D scale of the process.
LTC (LONGITUDINAL TIME CODE):
Time code recorded on one of the audio channels of video tape. Requires tape movement to
read. (See also VITC)
LUMEN: The measure of luminous
flux (the rate at which light pulses are emitted or received). For instance, one candela
of light covering a square foot of surface. See FOOTLAMBERT.
LUMINANCE: The measured value of
brightness; reflected light measure on motion picture screens as footlamberts or candelas
per square meter.
LUX: Metric measure of
illumination approximately equal to 10 foot-candles (1 lux = 10.764 fc).
M [top of page]
MACHINE SPEED: The rate at which
film moves through the processor, expressed in feet or meters per minute.
MAGAZINE (projector): Enclosures
on a motion-picture projector which holds the reels of film.
MAGAZINE TAKE-UP (United Kingdom uses the
term spool box): The device which winds up the film after photography (in a
camera), copying (in a printer), and after projection (in projection).
MAGENTA: Purplish color;
complementary to green or the minus-green subtractive primary used in the three-color
process. Magenta light results when red and blue light overlap.
MAGNETIC DISK: A storage format
for digital information used in computers and other new technologies, and read by a
magnetic disk drive.
MAGNETIC SOUND: Sound derived
from an electronic audio signal recorded on a magnetic oxide stripe or on full-coated
MAGNETIC SOUND HEAD: The magnetic
sound reproducer installed above the projector head but below the supply reel support arm
MAGNETIC STRIPING: The
application of magnetic material on motion- picture film intended for the recording of
MAGNETIC TAPE / MAGNETIC FILM: Usually
1/4-inch plastic audio tape that has been coated with particles that can be magnetized. As
used on tape recorders. In film use, it is also used in various formats compatible with
super 8, 16mm, 35mm and 70 mm films.
MAGNETIC TRACK: Linear path of
magnetically recorded audio signal on a magnetic film stripe or tape. The number of
"mag tracks" can vary from one to six, depending on the picture format.
MAGOPTICAL PRINT: Composite
release print that contains both optical and magnetic sound tracks.
MANUFACTURER IDENTIFICATION CODE:
Letter which identifies film manufacture.
MASKING: Restricting the size of
a projected image on a screen by the use of black borders around the screen. Also the
restriction in size of any projected image or photographic print by the use of undercut
aperture plates or masks and borders.
MASTER POSITIVE: Timed print made
from a negative original and from which a duplicate negative is made.
MASTER: The final
negative-reversal positive or intermediate film from which subsequent prints are made.
MASTER SHOT: Usually a long shot
in which all action in a scene takes place. Action is repeated for the MS and CU which may
be cut into the scene.
MATCH FRAME EDIT: An edit in
which the source and record tapes pick up exactly where they left off. Often used to
extend a previous edit. Also called a 'tacking edit".
MATCHING CHECK SYMBOLS: Two
(35mm) or four (16mm) randomly selected and placed symbols designed as an extra matching
check. To use: after matching key number and checking picture, verify that same symbols
are located in same position on both the workprint and the negative.
MATTE: An opaque outline which
limits the exposed area of a picture, either as a cut-out object in front of the camera or
as a silhouette on another strip of film.
MAXIMUM DENSITY (D-MAX): Portion
of the shoulder of the characteristic curve where further increases in exposure on
negative film or decreases in exposure on reversal film will produce no increase in
MEDIUM SHOT: A scene that is
photographed from a medium distance so that the full figure of the subject fills an entire
METRE-CANDLE: Unit of
illuminance. The light received at a point one metre away from a point light source having
an intensity of one candela (formerly candle).
MGM CAMERA 65: A motion picture
production method developed at the MGM Studios using a 65 mm negative with an image height
of five perforations and a horizontal compression ratio of 1.33:1. A 65 mm or 70 mm
contact print could be shown on an appropriate 70 mm projector equipped with a 1.33:1
anamorphic lens. Using special reduction printing techniques, 35 mm prints could be made
for CinemaScope-type presentations.
MINIMUM DENSITY (D-MIN): Constant-density
area in the tone of the characteristic curve where less exposure on negative film or more
exposure on reversal film will produce no reduction in density. Sometimes called base plus
fog in black-and-white film.
MIX: To combine the various sound
tracks-dialogue, music, sound effects - into a single track.
MIXING: The combining of several
sound sources into one.
MODELING: In computer graphics,
the process of plotting the locations of the points that make up the dimensions of an
object in three dimensional space.
MODULATION TRANSFER CURVE:
Indicates the ability of a film to record fine detail. The curve results when light
transmission is measured with lines that are successively more closely spaced.
MOVIOLA: A trademarked name for a
machine with a small rear-projection screen and the capacity to play back several sound
tracks. Used in editing and for reviewing portions of the film during production. Also
used to synchronize or interlock picture and sound track in editing.
MS: (Medium Shot). Frame
composition in which a three-quarter-length figure fills the screen.
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NARRATION: The off-screen
commentary for a film; often referred to as "voice-over."
NEGATIVE: The term
"negative" is used to designate any of the following (in either black-and white
or color): (1)The raw stock specifically designed for negative images. (2) the negative
image. (3) Negative raw stock that has been exposed but has not been processed. (4)
Processed film bearing a negative image.
NEGATIVE FILM: Produces a
negative image (black is white, white is black, and colors appear as complementaries).
NEGATIVE IMAGE: A photographic
image in which the values of light and shade of the original photographed subject are
represented in inverse order. Note: In a negative image, light objects of the original
subject are represented by high densities and dark objects are represented by low
densities. In a color negative, colors are represented by their complementary color.
NEGATIVE-POSITIVE PROCESS: Photographic
process in which a positive image is obtained by development of a latent image made by
printing a negative.
NEGATIVE TIMING (Negative Grading): The
selection of the appropriate printing lights for the printing process.
NEUTRAL-DENSITY FILTERS: Used to
reduce the intensity of light read the film without affecting colors.
NEUTRAL TEST CARD: A commercially
prepared card: One side has a neutral 18-percent reflection that has the appearance of
medium gray.The other side has a neutral reflection of 90-percent and has the visual
appearance of stark white.
NG: "No good." notation
for picture and sound takes that will not be used in the final edited film.
NOISE: Unwanted sound in an audio
NOISE REDUCTION: Process of
reducing inherent audio system noises by the use of special electronic circuitry. See
NON-DROP FRAME: A type of SMPTE
time code that continuously counts a full 30 frames per second. As a result, non-drop,
frame-time code does not match real time. (See also Drop Frame)
NONSYNC SOUND: In theatrical
projection, the amplifier channel selector position used when playing record or tape music
during openings, intermissions, and closing.
NTSC (NATIONAL TELEVISION STANDARDS
COMMITTEE: Committee that established the color transmission system used in the
U.S. and some other countries. Also used to indicate the system itself consisting of 525
lines of information, scanned at a rate of approximately 30 frames per second.
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OFF-LINE EDITING: The process of
creatively assembling the elements of a production, to communicate the appropriate message
or story, and/or calculating the order, timing and pace with user-friendly equipment such
as film, 3/4" videotape or non-linear computer editing systems.
ONE-TO-ONE PRINTING: Optical
printing of the images which are reproduced to the same size.
ON-LINE EDITING: Final editing or
assemble using the original master tapes to produce a finished program ready for
distribution. Usually preceded by off-line editing. Usually associated with high-quality
OPAQUE: Of sufficient density so
that all incident of light is completely absorbed (the opposite of transparent).
OPTICAL EFFECTS: Trick shots
prepared by the use of an optical printer in the laboratory, especially fades, dissolves,
superimpositions, freeze-frames, split screens, and wipes.
OPTICAL PRINTER: Used when image
size of the print film is different from the image size of the pre-print film. Also used
when effects such as skip frames, blowups, zooms, and mattes are included.
OPTICAL SOUND: System in which
the photographic (optical) sound track on a film is scanned by a horizontal slit beam of
light that modulates a photoelectric cell. The voltages generated by the cell produce
audio signals that are amplified to operate screen speakers.
OPTICAL TRACK: Sound track in
which the sound record takes the form of density variations (variable density track) or
width variations (variable area track) in a photographic image.
OPTIMUM PRINT DENSITY: The
desired screen quality.
ORIGINAL: An initial photographic
image, or sound recording-whether photographic or magnetic-as opposed to some stage of
ORIGINAL NEGATIVE: The negative
originally exposed in a camera.
OUT-TAKE: A take of a scene which
is not used for printing or final assembly in editing.
OVEREXPOSURE: A condition in
which too much light reaches the film, producing a dense negative or a washed-out
OVERLAP SPLICE: Any film splice
in which one film end overlaps the over film end.
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PAL (PHASE ALTERNATION BY LINE): Color
television system developed in Germany, and used by many European and other countries. PAL
consists of 625 lines scanned at a rate of 25 frames per second.
PAN: A camera move in which the
camera appears to move horizontally or vertically, usually to follow the action or scan a
scene. In animation, the effect is achieved by moving the artwork under the camera.
PAN SHOT: Derived from
"panoramic." A shot which encompasses a wider area than can be viewed by the
camera at one time, and which will be scanned by the camera by means of panning.
PANAVISION 35: A 35 mm process
using 35 mm negative film and photographed through a Panavision anamorphic lens with a
compression of 2X. Contact 35 mm prints are compatible with anamorphic systems such as
PARALLAX: In camera work, the
viewfinder often is mounted with its optical axis at an appreciable distance from the
optical axis of the cam- era lens, commonly resulting in inadvertent positional errors in
PEAK DENSITY: Wavelength of
PERFORATION DAMAGE: On inspection
the perforations through a magnifying glass you will find damage progressing from cracked,
chipped or elongated holes to torn holes.
PERFORATIONS: Regularly spaced
and accurately shaped holed which are punched throughout the length of a motion picture
film. These holes engage the teeth of various sprockets and pins by which the film is
advanced and positioned as it travels through cameras, processing machines, and
PERSISTENCE OF VISION: The
ability of the eye to perceive a series of rapid still images as a single moving image by
retaining each impression on the retina for a fraction of a second, thus overlapping the
images. This phenomena makes it possible to see the sequential projected images of a
motion picture as life-like continuous movement
PHOTOFLOOD: Type of light bulb in
which voltage overcharges the filament, boosting the light output and color temperature,
but shortening the life of the bulb itself.
PHOTOMETER: An electro-optical
device used to measure light intensity (a light meter).
PIN: A component of a camera of
printer mechanism that engages with a perforation to secure the film at the time of
exposure, or to advance the film for the next exposure.
PIN REGISTRATION: A film term
relating to the steadiness of the image. For optical and film-to tape transfers, a
pin-registered device holds each frame in position for a perfectly registered image,
critical for creating multilayered special effects.
PITCH: (1) That property of sound
which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. (2) Distance from the center of
one perforation on a film to the next; or from one thread of a screw to the next; or from
one curve of a spiral to the next.
PIXEL('PICTURE ELEMENT'): The
digital representation of the smallest area of a television picture, appearing as a tiny
dot on the television screen. In a full color image, each pixel contains three components
- a combination of red, green and blue signals - reflecting the trichromatic nature of
human vision. The number of pixels in a complete picture differs from one system to
another; the more pixels, the greater the resolution.
PIXILATION: A stop motion
technique in which full-sized props and live actors are photographed frame-by-frame to
achieve unusual effects of motion.
POLARIZING FILTER: Transparent
material used to subdue reflections and control brightness of the sky.
POSITIVE FILM: Motion picture
film designed and used primarily for the making of master positives or release prints.
POSITIVE IMAGE: A photographic
replica in which the values of light and shade of the original photographed subject are
represented in their natural order. The light objects of the original subject are
represented by low densities and the dark objects are represented by high densities.
POST-PRODUCTION: The work done on
a film once photography has been completed, such as editing, developing and printing,
recording of the sound track after the picture has been completed.
PRESYNCHRONIZATION: The recording
of the sound track before any production has begun, so that action can be synchronized
when the film is exposed with the prerecorded sound.
PRIMARY COLOR: One of the light
colors-blue, red, or green-that can be mixed to form almost any color.
PRINTING: Copying motion picture
images by exposure to light energy.
PROCESSING: Procedure during
which exposed film is developed, fixed, and washed to produce either a negative or a
PROCESS SCREEN PHOTOGRAPHY: The
filming or videotaping of actors, props, or objects in front of a blue-screen (or
green-screen). In post-production, the blue or green is replaced by another element, such
as a background, using digital or optical special effects techniques.
PROCESSING TIME: The amount of
time it takes for a computer to process data.
PRODUCER: The administrative head
of the film, usually responsible for budget, staff, legal contracts, distribution,
PRODUCTION: The general term used
to describe the process involved in making all the original material that is the basis for
the finished motion picture. Loosely, the completed film.
PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR: An
assistant to the producer, in charge of routine administrative duties.
PROJECTION: The process of
presenting a film by optical means and transmitted light for either visual or aural
review, or both.
PROJECTION SPEED: The rate at
which the film moves through the projector; twenty-four frames per second is the standard
for all sound films.
PROTECTIVE LEADER: A section of
unexposed film attached to the beginning and/or end of a reel of film.
PROTECTIVE MASTER: A master
positive from which a dupe negative can be made if the original is damaged.
PULL-DOWN CLAW: The metallic
finger which advances the film one frame between exposure cycles.
PUSH PROCESSING: A means of
increasing the exposure index of film.
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R [top of page]
RAW STOCK: Unexposed and
unprocessed motion picture film; includes camera original, laboratory intermediate,
duplicating, and release-print stocks.
REAL TIME: The instantaneous
response of a computer or device to instructions: the normal viewing time of any film or
RECIPROCITY LAW: Expressed by
(H)=Et, where E is the light intensity, and T is time. When E or T are varied to the
extreme, an unsatisfactory exposure can result.
REDUCTION PRINT: Print made from
a larger-gauge film.
REDUCTION PRINTING: Making a copy
of a film original on smaller format raw stock by optical printing; for example, printing
a 35 mm original onto 16 mm stock for use in libraries, etc.
REFLECTANCE: The brightness
reflected from a surface such as a motion picture screen. See LUMINANCE.
REFLECTOR: Any surface that
reflects light. Reflectors can be constructed of cardboard, metal, cloth, or other
material. In motion picture projection, primarily the lamphouse mirror and the screen. See
RELEASE NEGATIVE: Duplicate
negative or color reversal intermediate from which release prints are made.
RELEASE PRINT: In a motion
picture processing laboratory, any of numerous duplicate prints of a subject made for
general theater distribution.
RENDERING: The simulation of
light on three-dimensional objects; determining an object's surface characteristics, such
as color and texture.
RESOLUTION: The capacity of a
medium to capture and playback distinctly fine details. Film is a high resolution storage
medium; current video tape formats are low resolution mediums. Computers can perform at a
wide range of resolutions, from the lowest to the highest, depending on hardware and
software capabilities, and are therefore considered resolution independent.
REVERSAL FILM: Film that
processes to a positive image after exposure in a camera, or in a printer to produce
another positive film.
First-generation duplicate that is reversed to produce the same kind of image (negative or
positive) as the original; used for printing.
REVERSAL PROCESS: Any
photographic process in which an image is produced by secondary development of the silver
halides grains that remain after the latent image has been changed to silver by primary
development and destroyed by a chemical bleach. In the case of film exposed in a camera,
the first developer changes the latent image to a negative silver image. This is destroyed
by a bleach and the remaining silver halides is converted to a positive image by a second
developer. The bleached silver and any traces of halides may now be removed with hypo.
REVERSE ANAMORPHIC: An optical
device which, when placed in front of a prime lens, reduces the size of the projected
anamorphic image rather than magnifies it, as with a normal anamorphic attachment. This
feature allows the use of short focal length prime lenses with larger apertures resulting
in added screen luminance of up to 40 percent. See Anamorphic lens.
REWIND: An automatic console or
set of bench mounted spindles used to wind film from reel-to-reel.
REWINDING: The process of winding
the film from the take-up reel to the supply reel so that the head end, or start of the
reel, is on the outside. If there are no identifying leaders on the film, upside-down
images will signify the head end.
RGB: Red green & blue, the
primary color components of the additive color system used in color television.
ROTATION:A camera move in which
the camera is moved in a complete circle to give a spinning effect in the film. A partial
rotation is called a Tilt.
ROUGH CUT: Preliminary stage in
film editing, in which shots, scenes, and sequences are laid out in an approximate
relationship, without detailed attention to the individual cutting points.
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SAFELIGHT: A darkroom light
fitted with a filter to absorb light rays to which film is sensitive.
SAFETY BASE: Film base that is
fire-resistant or slow-burning as defined by ANSI PH1.25 and PH22.31, and by various fire
codes. Acetate-base film and polyester-base film meet safety-film standards.
SAFETY FILM: A photographic film
whose base is fire resistant or slow burning as defined by ANSI document PH 1.25, PH22.21,
and by various fire codes. At the present time, the terms "safety base film,"
"acetate base film" and "polyester base film" are synonymous with
SAMPLING: The process of
determining the best color combinations that represent an original image or desired
SATURATION: Term used to describe
color brilliance or purity. When color film images are projected at the proper brightness
and without interference from stray light, colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and
undiluted are said to be "saturated."
SCENE: A segment of a film that
depicts a single situation or incident.
SCOOP: A studio lamp of a soft,
wide, round pattern; 500 to 2,000 watts.
"SCOPE": A diminutive
term used to describe any anamorphic projection system or film.
blemishes on the film emulsion or base.
SCRIM: A translucent material
that makes hard light appear more diffuse, or reduces, like a screen, the intensity of the
light without changing the character of it.
SCRIPT: The text of a film,
giving dialogue, action, staging, camera moves,
SENIOR: (5K), Focusable studio
lamp with a Fresnel lens and 5,000-watt bulb.
SENSITIVITY: Degree of
responsiveness of a film to light.
SEPARATION LIGHT: A light that
helps define the outline of a subject, thereby separating it from the background. Also
called edge light, top Light, rim light, backlight, hair light, skimmer, or kicker.
SEQUENCE: A group of related
scenes in a film that combine to tell a particular portion of the story, and which are
usually set in the same location or time span.
SET: Derived from
"setting." The prepared stage on which the action for three-dimensional
animation takes place. A set may be as simple as a plain tabletop, or as elaborate as
props and decoration can make it.
SHARPNESS: Visual sensation of
the abruptness of an edge. Clarity.
SHORT: The term usually refers to
the cartoons made in the Hollywood studies during the 1930's, 1940's, and 1950's, which
ran between 6 and 7 minutes long. Today, shorts range from one and one-half to over 20
minutes in length and cover a variety of styles and subjects.
SHOT: An unbroken filmed segment;
the basic component of a scene.
SHUTTER: In theatrical
projection, a two-bladed rotating device used to interrupt the light source while the film
is being pulled down into the projector gate. Once blade masks the pulldown while the
other blade causes an additional light interruption increasing the flicker frequency to 48
cycles per second ... a level that is not objectionable to the viewer at the recommended
screen brightness of 16 footlamberts (55 candelas per square meter).
SINGLE-FRAME EXPOSURE: The
exposure of one frame of motion picture film at a time, in the manner of still
photography. Commonly used in animation and time-lapse.
SINGLE-PERFORATION FILM: Film
with perforations along one edge only.
SINGLE-SYSTEM SOUND: Sound on a
magnetic or optical track that was recorded on the same strip of film on which the action
16 MM FILM: Film 16 mm wide. May
have single or double perforations.
SLATE BOARD: A board with written
information such as production title and number, scene and take number, and director's and
cameraman's names, photographed at the beginning or end of each take as identification.
See also clapper board and slate, electronic.
SLATE, ELECTRONIC: An electrical
device synchronously exposing a few frames in the camera and providing an electric signal
that is recorded on the magnetic tape, so that the two can later be matched in editing.
SLOW IN/SLOW OUT: Refers to the
fact that panning and trucking moves usually begin slowly, gradually attain their full
speed, then slow to a stop, to avoid a sense of jerkiness in the movement.
SLOW MOTION: The process of
photographing a subject at a faster frame rate than used in projection, to expand the time
SMPTE: Acronym for the Society of
Motion Picture and Television Engineers.
SOFT: The opposite of
"hard". (1) As applied to a photographic emulsion or developer, having a low
contrast. (2) As applied to the lighting of a set, diffuse, giving a flat scene in which
the brightness difference between highlights and shadows is small.
SOFT LIGHT: Light made up of
soft, scattered rays resulting in soft, less clearly defined shadows; also called diffuse
SOUND DRUM: A flat roller in the
sound head designed to keep the film precisely positioned at the point where the scanning
beam slit scans the sound track. Also called the scanning drum.
SOUND EFFECTS (FOLEY): Sound from
a source other than the tracks bearing synchronized dialogue, narration or music: sound
effects commonly introduced into a master track in the re-recording step, usually with the
idea of enhancing the illusion of reality.
SOUND GATE: The gate used in an
optical sound head, instead of a sound drum, to keep the film sound track precisely
aligned on the scanning beam slit during sound reproduction.
SOUND HEAD: The optical sound
reproducer mounted beneath the projector head, but above the take-up reel support arm or
SOUND NEGATIVE: The negative
record of photographic sound recording.
SOUND POSITIVE: A positive print
of the photographic sound recording.
SOUND READER: A device used for
playback of sound tracks, particularly during the editing procedure.
SOUND RECORDER: Device that may
use audio tape, magnetic film, or motion-picture film to record sound.
SOUND SPEED: Standardized speed
of filming and projecting at 24 frames per second, when picture is synchronized with a
sound track. Applies to films of all gauges.
SOUND SPROCKET: Any sprocket that
pulls the film past the sound scanning beam slit.
SOUND STRIP: Narrow band of
magnetic recording medium on a strip of film.
SOUND TRACK: Photographic/optical
sound track running lengthwise on 35 mm film adjacent to the edges of the picture frames
and inside the perforations.
SPECIAL EFFECT: A term broadly
applied to any of numerous results obtained in the laboratory by combination and
manipulation of one or more camera records to produce an imaginatively creative scene
different from what was in front of the main camera. The making of special effects may
involve techniques such as double printing, fades, mattes, vignetting, etc.
SPECULAR: A term used to describe
mirror-like quality of a reflection or reflected light from a surface. Specular also can
describe a hard or point-surface light such as the sun, are light, or any other light
producing nearly parallel beams and hard shadows.
SPECULAR DENSITY: Comparing only
the transmitted light that is perpendicular to the film plane with the normal incident
light, analogous to optical printing and projection.
SPEED: 1. Inherent sensitivity of
an emulsion to light. Represented by a number derived from a films characteristic curve.
2.The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which a lens can be set. A
"fast" lens transmits more light and has a larger opening and better optics than
a "slow" lens.
SPLICE: Any type of cement or
mechanical fastening by which two separate lengths of film are united end-to-end so they
function as a single piece of film when passing through a camera, film processing machine,
SPLICER: A mechanical device
arranged for holding film in alignment and with the correct sprocket hole interval during
the various operations required in joining two pieces of film. It often includes a device
for removing emulsion.
SPLICING: The joining together of
two or more pieces of film so that the joined film segments will pass through a projector,
film processor, or camera without interruption.
SPLICING TAPE: Tape designed to
make overlap or butt splices without the need for film cement or mechanical fastener.
Available in a variety of sizes, with or without perforations, and can be clear,
translucent, or opaque orange.
SPROCKET: A toothed wheel used to
transport perforated motion picture film.
STABILIZATION: The influence of a
magnetic flux in steadying the flow of electrons in a carbon are. The action of a damping
roller or other device in reducing wow and flutter in a soundhead.
STAGING: The planning of how the
action will take place.
STAND: The entire photographing
unit, including the compound, camera, and crane.
STOCK: General term for motion
picture film, particularly before exposure.
STOP: The relationship between
the focal length of a lens and the effective diameter of its aperture. An adjustable iris
diaphragm permits any ordinary photographic lens to be used at any stop within its range.
Sometimes used synonymously with f-number as in "f-stop". A unit of exposure
STOP DOWN: To decrease the
diameter of the light-admitting orifice of a lens by adjustment of an iris diaphragm.
STOP FRAME (HOLD FRAME): An
optical printing effect in which a single-frame image is repeated to appear stationary
when projected. Also, camera exposure made one frame at a time rather than by continuous
STOP MOTION: An animation method
whereby apparent motion of objects is obtained on the film by exposing single frames and
moving the object to simulate continuous motion.
STORYBOARD: A series of small
consecutive drawings with accompanying caption-like descriptions of the action and sound,
which are arranged comic strip fashion and used to plan a film. The drawings are
frequently tacked to corkboards so that individual drawings can be added or changed in the
course of development. Invented at the Disney studio, the technique is now widely used for
live action films and commercials, as well as animation.
STRAY LIGHT: Any light that does
not contribute to the purpose for which it was intended. In theatrical projection, all of
the nonimage-producing light hitting the screen.
STRIPE, MAGNETIC: Narrow band(s)
of magnetic oxide usually coated toward the edges of the base side of motion picture film
for accepting audio signal recordings in the form of magnetic impulses.
SUBTRACTIVE COLOR: The formation
of colors by the removal of selected portions of the white light spectrum by transparent
filters or dye images.
SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS: Photographic
process that uses one or more subtractive primary-cyan, magenta, and yellow-to control
red, green, and blue light.
SUNLIGHT: Light reaching the
observer directly from the sun. To be distinguished from Daylight and Skylight which
include indirect light from clouds and refract the atmosphere.
SUPER PANAVISION: Similar to
Panavision 35, but photographed flat in 65 mm. The 70 mm prints produce and aspect ratio
of 2.25:1 with 4- channel sound and a ratio of 2:1 with 6-channel sound.
SUPERIMPOSITION: (Super). Two
scenes exposed on the same piece of raw film stock, one on top of the other.
Superimposition is usually done in the printer but can be performed in the camera,
although this offers less control of the operation.
SUPERSCOPE: A 35 mm anamorphic
release print system adopted by RKO Radio Pictures that produced a screen image with an
aspect ratio of 2:1 or 2.35:1 when projected with a normal anamorphic lens. The original
camera negative was photographed flat, but special printing produced the anamorphic print.
SURROUND CHANNEL: The specific
sound channel in a sound reproduction system directing audio signals to speakers placed at
the sides and at the rear of the auditorium to provide the added realism of surrounding
SURROUND SPEAKERS: Speakers
placed at the sides and at the rear of an auditorium to increase the realism of a
stereophonic presentation, or to produce other special effects.
SWEETING: Audio post production,
at which time audio problems are corrected. Music, narration and sound effects are mixed
with original sound elements.
SWISH PAN: A very fast panoramic
movement of the camera, resulting in a blurred image. Used sometimes as a transition
between sequences or scenes.
SYNCHRONIZER: A mechanism
employing a common rotary shaft that has sprockets which, by engaging perforations in the
film, pass corresponding lengths of picture and sound films simultaneously, thus
effectively keeping the two (or more) films in synchronism during the editing process.
SYNC PULSE: Inaudible timing
reference recorded on the magnetic tape used in double-system recording. The source can be
a generator in the camera cabled to the tape recorder, or an oscillating crystal in the
recorder when the camera also has a crystal. When the sound is transferred to magnetic
film for editing, a resolver reads the reference and ensures that the tape runs at the
same speed as during shooting. In this way the magnetic workprint can be placed in sync
with the images for which the original sound was recorded.
SYNCHRONIZATION: A picture record
and a sound record are said to be "in sync" when they are placed relative to
each other on a release print so that when they are projected the action will coincide
precisely with the accompanying sound.
SYNCHRONIZE: Align sound and
image precisely for editing, projection, and printing.
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T-STOP: A lens marking which
indicates the true light transmission of the lens at a given aperture instead of the
approximate light transmission indicated by the conventional f-stop marking.
TAF: Telecine Analysis Film (TAF)
is an objective tool for initial setup and centering of the controls on a telecine before
you transfer images from film to video.
TAIL ENDS, TAILS: The end of a
film. The film must be rewound before projection if it is tails out.
TAKE: When a particular scene is
repeated and photographed more than once in an effort to get a perfect recording of some
special action, each photographic record of the scene or of a repetition of the scene is
known as a "take." For example, the seventh scene of a particular sequence might
be photographed three times, and the resulting records would be called: Scene 7, Take i;
Scene 7, Take 2; and Scene 7, Take 3.
TAPE SPLICE: Film splice made
with special splicing tape applied to both sides of the film.
TAPE SPLICER: Device designed for
making film splices with special splicing tape. Most use unperforated tape, and then punch
perforations into the tape as the splice is made.
TELECINE: A device for scanning
motion picture film images and converting them to standard videotape.
35 MM FILM: Film 35 mm wide with
four perforations on both edges of each frame. Image frame and sound-track area lie inside
THREAD: To place a length of film
through an assigned path in a projector. camera, or other film handling device. Also
3-D: The common term applied to
three-dimensional (stereoscopic) images projected on a screen or viewed as a print. There
have been several systems shown in theaters but the discomfort attributed to the necessary
eyewear, along with other equipment limitations has, more or less, relegated the present
systems to novelties.
THROW: In theatrical projection,
the distance from the projector aperture to the center of the screen.
TILT: Tilting. Camera pivotal
movement in a vertical plane. Sometimes called vertical panning.
TIME-LAPSE MOVIE: A movie that
shows in a few minutes or a few seconds, events that take hours or even days to occur;
accomplished by exposing single frames of film at fixed intervals.
TIMING: A laboratory process that
involves balancing the color of a film to achieve consistency from scene to scene. Also
includes adjusting exposure settings in duplication.
TITLE: The name or designation of
a film. Also, any inscription contained in a film for the purpose of conveying information
about the film, its message, or its story to the viewer.
TONE: That degree of lightness or
darkness in any given area of a print; also referred to a value. Cold toes (bluish) and
warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-and-white and color
TRAILER: A length of film usually found on the end of each release print reel identifying
subject, part, or reel number and containing several feet of projection leader. Also a short roll of
film containing coming attractions or other messages of interest.
TRANSITION: The passage from one
episodic part to another. Usually, film transitions are accomplished rapidly and smoothly,
without loss of audience orientation, and are consistent with the established mood of the
TRANSMITTANCE: Amount of incident
light transmitted by a medium; commonly expressed as percent transmittance.
TRAVELLING MATTE: A process shot
in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by
TRIANGLE: A three-sided framework
of wood or metal, designed to hold the three points of a tripod to limit their spread.
TRIMS: Manual printer controls
used for overall color correction. Also, unused portions of shots taken for a film;
usually kept until the production is complete.
TRUCK:A camera move in which the
camera seems to move toward (Truck In) or away from (Truck Out) the subject. The same
effect is called a zoom in live-action filmmaking.
TRUCKING: To move a camera
translationally in space as a shot proceeds. usually by means of a dolly or other
vehicular camera support. The purpose is to pace, and maintain image size of moving
TUNGSTEN LIGHT: Light produced by
an electrically heated filament, having a continuous spectral distribution.
TWIST: An effect that is produced
in new prints by loose winding of the film, emulsion side in, under dry air conditions. If
the film is wound emulsion side out under the same conditions, the undulation do not
alternate from one edge to the other but are directly opposite one another.
U [top of page]
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT: Energy
produced by the (invisible) part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths of 100
to 400 nanometers. Popularly known as "black light." UV radiation produces
fluorescence in many materials.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION: Radiation
at the short wavelength end of the spectrum, not visible to the eye. It produces
fluorescence in some materials.
ULTRAVISION: A 35 mm custom
system designed to provide a high definition and improved contrast film presentation on a
slightly curved screen. Ultravision was designed as a complete system in which theater
design was an integral part. Projectors, lenses, and lamphouses were also modified.
UNDEREXPOSURE: A condition in
which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative or a dark reversal or
UNDERSCAN: Reducing the height
and width of the picture on a video monitor so that the edges, and thus portions of the
blanking, can be observed.
UNIVERSAL LEADER: A film
projection leader, designed according to ANSI document PH22.55 for the current projection
rate of 24 frames per second (1 1/2 feet per second), and recommended for use on all
release prints. It was designed to replace the Academy leader originally conceived when
the motion picture projection rate was 16 frames per second.
UNSQUEEZED PRINT: A print in
which the distorted image of an anamorphic negative has not been corrected for normal
UNSTEADINESS: An objectionable
amount of vertical motion in the screen image.
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VIEWER: A mechanical and optical
device designed to permit examination of an enlarged image of motion picture film during
VIEW FINDER: A registration
device mounted near the top of the animation stand that allows the camera operator to
check whether or not the camera is trained on the center of the field.
VIGNETTING: The partial masking,
or blocking, of peripheral light rays either by intent, or by accident. In theatrical
projection, the blockage of peripheral light rays in a projection lens due to a lens
barrel that is too long, or to a lamphouse optical system that is not correctly matched to
the limiting aperture of the projection lens. In photography, the intentional masking of
peripheral light rays to soften and enhance a photograph.
VITC (VERTICAL INTERVAL TIME CODE): Time
code that is recorded in the vertical blanking interval about the active picture area. Can
be read from video tape in the "still" mode.
VOICE ARTIST: An actor who
performs the voices for the animated characters during a recording.
VOICE-OVER-NARRATION: A sound and
picture shot relationship in which a narrator's voice accompanies picture action.
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WIDESCREEN: General term for form
of film presentation in which the picture shown has an aspect ration greater than 1.33:1.
WILD: Picture or sound shot
without synchronous relationship to the other.
WIPE: Optical transition effect
in which one image is replaced by another at a boundary edge moving in a selected pattern
across the frame.
WORKPRINT: Any picture or sound
track print, usually a positive, intended for use in the editing process to establish
through a series of trail cut- tings the finished version of a film. The purpose is to
preserve the original intact (and undamaged) until the cutting points have been
X [top of page]
XENON BULB: The quartz envelope
containing the two electrodes that produce an are in a high-pressure environment of xenon
XFR: Shorthand slang for "transfer."
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YELLOW: Minus-blue subtractive
primary used in the three-color process.
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ZOOM-IN: A continuous changing of
the camera lens focal length, which gradually narrows down the area of the picture being
photographed, giving the effect of continuously enlarging the subject.
ZOOM-OUT: A continuous changing
of the camera lens focal length, which gradually enlarges the area being photographed,
giving the effect of a continuously diminishing subject.
Dr. Paul Lazarus, III, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL. Motion Picture Course CMP103,
Kodak World Wide Student Program Student Filmmaker's Handbook 1991.
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